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Jean-Philippe Duvel

on the intensification process. It is likely that the MJO modulation of the background flow has a major role in the initiation of more numerous TDs. One can find an analogy with the background African easterly jet (AEJ) that produces African easterly waves (AEW) that later generate TDs in the North Atlantic (e.g., Landsea 1993 ; Dunkerton et al. 2009 ). The perturbation of the background flow by the MJO, and especially the westerly low-level jet developing in and after the active phase, may

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Nick Guy and David P. Jorgensen

mesoscale descent or ascent (i.e., rear inflow jet) was found, with perturbations in vertical flow corresponding to convective cell locations. There was a general weak descent below 5 km during this period. Fig . 8. (a) Horizontal reflectivity map at 2-km altitude collected by the tail radar during the second RCE module on 24 Nov 2011. Overlaid vector arrows indicated the horizontal wind solution from the quasi-dual-Doppler analysis (with reference vector at the top right) and the solid black line shows

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