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Mozhgan Amiramjadi, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Mohammad Mirzaei, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

are orography, convection, and coupled jet and front systems (e.g., Plougonven and Zhang 2014 ), which are mainly located in the troposphere. Based on their sources, the IGWs are thus classified into “orographic” and “nonorographic” (e.g., Kim et al. 2003 ) and dealt with separately in IGW parameterization schemes as they have distinct characteristics and impacts ( McLandress et al. 2013 ). Through their sources, the nonorographic IGWs are connected to the large-scale flow which is dominantly

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Fabienne Schmid, Elena Gagarina, Rupert Klein, and Ulrich Achatz

Abstract

Idealized integral studies of the dynamics of atmospheric inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) from their sources in the troposphere (e.g., by spontaneous emission from jets and fronts) to dissipation and mean-flow effects at higher altitudes could contribute to a better treatment of these processes in IGW parameterizations in numerical weather prediction and climate simulation. It seems important that numerical codes applied for this purpose are efficient and focus on the essentials. Therefore a previously published staggered-grid solver for f-plane soundproof pseudo-incompressible dynamics is extended here by two main components. These are 1) a semi-implicit time stepping scheme for the integration of buoyancy and Coriolis effects, and 2) the incorporation of Newtonian heating consistent with pseudo-incompressible dynamics. This heating function is used to enforce a temperature profile that is baroclinically unstable in the troposphere and it allows the background state to vary in time. Numerical experiments for several benchmarks are compared against a buoyancy/Coriolis-explicit third-order Runge-Kutta scheme, verifying the accuracy and efficiency of the scheme. Preliminary mesoscale simulations with baroclinic-wave activity in the troposphere show intensive small-scale wave activity at high altitudes, and they also indicate there the expected reversal of the zonal-mean-zonal winds.

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

tropospheric jet streams generate vertically propagating gravity waves in the troposphere and lower stratosphere ( Smith 1979 ; Gill 1982 ; Baines 1995 ; Fritts and Alexander 2003 ; Nappo 2012 ; Sutherland 2010 ; Plougonven and Zhang 2014 ). Through their far-field interactions, gravity waves constitute an important coupling mechanism in Earth’s atmosphere. The associated redistribution of momentum and energy controls the global middle-atmospheric circulation ( Dunkerton 1978 ; Lindzen 1981 ). To

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Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, and Markus Rapp

-based lidar observations in the lee of New Zealand’s Alps during DEEPWAVE revealed enhanced gravity wave activity in the stratosphere and mesosphere, which lasted about 1–3 days and alternated with quiescent periods ( Kaifler et al. 2015 ). The gravity wave forcing due to passing weather systems, the appearance of tropopause jets, and the middle atmosphere wave response were all observed with a similar frequency and duration of 2–4 days ( Fritts et al. 2016 ; Gisinger et al. 2017 ). The episodic nature

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

was often aligned with the evolving polar night jet. This flow constellation is known to excite mountain waves and to facilitate their vertical propagation into the lower and middle stratosphere (e.g., Dörnbrack et al. 2001 ). Figure 2 presents the temporal evolution of temperature and wind above Esrange for the period from 21 November to 15 December 2013. The atmospheric parameters are taken from 6-hourly operational analyses of the IFS. The vertical temperature distribution shows a cold

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