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Yue Bai, Yan Wang, and Andrew L. Stewart

insensitive to the bottom drag coefficient, except in the special case of a very low ridge ( H b = 100 m). Additionally, in H b = 100 m cases, albeit with a relatively insensitive barotropic transport, the bottom flow structure changes with C d . At higher drag the zonal flow tends to spread out across the whole channel, while at lower drag a visibly strong jet develops (not shown). However, the baroclinic transport T BC does vary by a factor of ~2 over the range of C d explored here. Analogous

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Shuwen Tan, Larry J. Pratt, Dongliang Yuan, Xiang Li, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Corry Corvianawatie, Dewi Surinati, Asep S. Budiman, and Ahmad Bayhaqi

and with our edge definitions, our estimate of the transport below Θ = 3.6°, 3.4°, 3.2°, and 3.0°C are 2.8, 2.4, 2.0, and 1.5 Sv, respectively. However, uncertainties exist due to assumptions of laterally uniform flow and of the location of the southwest boundary. Flows in sea straits are often concentrated in a jet (e.g., Siddall et al. 2004 ) or a boundary current ( Gill 1977 ). We rule out the possibility of the overflow being a boundary current since the local deformation radius g ′ D / | f

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Hui Wu

current off the southeast China coast . Prog. Oceanogr. , 21 , 363 – 372 , https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6611(88)90014-6 . 10.1016/0079-6611(88)90014-6 Guan , B. , and G. Fang , 2006 : Winter counter-wind currents off the southeastern China coast: A review . J. Oceanogr. , 62 , 1 – 24 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-006-0028-8 . 10.1007/s10872-006-0028-8 Hetland , R. , Y. Hsueh , R. Leben , and P. Niiler , 1999 : A Loop Current-induced jet along the edge of the west Florida

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Andrew L. Stewart, James C. McWilliams, and Aviv Solodoch

: Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics . Cambridge University Press, 745 pp. 10.1017/9781107588417 Wang , Y. , and A. L. Stewart , 2020 : Scalings for eddy buoyancy transfer across continental slopes under retrograde winds . Ocean Modell. , 147 , 101579, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2020.101579 . 10.1016/j.ocemod.2020.101579 Waterman , S. , and S. R. Jayne , 2011 : Eddy-mean flow interactions in the along-stream development of a western boundary current jet: An idealized model study

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Kristin L. Zeiden, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, Matthew H. Alford, Daniel L. Rudnick, Gunnar Voet, and Hemantha Wijesekera

, B. , and R. Lukas , 1996 : Seasonal and interannual variability of the North equatorial current, the Mindanao Current, and the Kuroshio along the Pacific western boundary . J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 12 315 – 12 330 , https://doi.org/10.1029/95JC03204 . 10.1029/95JC03204 Qiu , B. , D. Rudnick , S. Chen , and Y. Kashino , 2013 : Quasi-stationary North Equatorial undercurrent jets across the tropical North Pacific Ocean . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 40 , 2183 – 2187 , https

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Magdalena Andres, Ruth C. Musgrave, Daniel L. Rudnick, Kristin L. Zeiden, Thomas Peacock, and Jae-Hun Park

://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/correlation/nina34.data . Park , J.-H. , and D. R. Watts , 2006 : Internal tides in the southwestern Japan/East Sea . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 36 , 22 – 34 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO2846.1 . 10.1175/JPO2846.1 PSMSL , 2019 : RLR monthly sea level. Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level, accessed 4 April 2019 , https://www.psmsl.org . Qiu , B. , and S. Chen , 2005 : Variability of the Kuroshio Extension jet, recirculation gyre, and mesoscale eddies on decadal time scales . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 35

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Kristin L. Zeiden, Daniel L. Rudnick, and Jennifer A. MacKinnon

. 1 ). They are the NEC to the north of Palau, the NECC to the south, and the Mindanao Eddy (ME) to the west. Glider surveys conducted by Schonau and Rudnick (2015) from 2009 to 2014 show the NEC is made up of a series of surface intensified cores between 8° and 20°N that migrate north to south with a seasonal cycle. The core velocities can reach up to 0.5 m s −1 . Underlying the NEC are a series of eastward subthermocline jets, the North Equatorial Undercurrents (NEUCs), which Qiu et al. (2013

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Eric Kunze and Ren-Chieh Lien

; Trossman et al. 2015 , 2016 ; Klymak 2018 ), observations in Drake Passage and on the north flank of Kerguelen Plateau find elevated internal-wave shear variance and turbulent dissipation rates associated with the deep-reaching Subantarctic, Polar, and South Antarctic Circumpolar Fronts ( St. Laurent et al. 2012 ; Brearley et al. 2013 ; Waterman et al. 2013 ; Sheen et al. 2013 ), qualitatively consistent with interaction of these jets with topography generating upward-propagating internal lee

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Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Joel C. Wesson, David W. Wang, William J. Teague, and Z. R. Hallock

30°N by Qiu et al. (2015) . They found the NEC between 7.5° and 25°N and the NECC between 2.5° and 7.5°N. Beneath the NEC, they also observed three eastward-flowing subsurface jets (NEUC) centered around 9°N, 13°N, and 18°N ( Qiu et al. 2013 ; Schönau and Rudnick 2015 ). The paper is organized as follows. Background winds and currents are described in section 2 . Shipboard current and microstructure observations are in section 3 . Discussions of vorticity generation and vertical transports

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Bowen Zhao, Emma Chieusse-Gérard, and Glenn Flierl

. Heywood , and M. P. Meredith , 1999 : On the structure, paths, and fluxes associated with agulhas rings . J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 21 007 – 21 020 , https://doi.org/10.1029/1998JC900131 . 10.1029/1998JC900131 Meacham , S. , 1991 : Meander evolution on piecewise-uniform, quasi-geostrophic jets . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 21 , 1139 – 1170 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1991)021<1139:MEOPUQ>2.0.CO;2 . Nycander , J. , and J. Lacasce , 2004 : Stable and unstable vortices attached to

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