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  • Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM): Science and Applications x
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Daniel J. Cecil and Themis Chronis

and Θ 89 from the literature have proven effective over the years. We reexamine them here because it has become convenient to apply our methods to vastly larger sample sizes than were used in the previous studies. Our optimal coefficients (producing the smallest contrast between land and water surfaces, and thus less ambiguity related to surface type) for PCT 37 and PCT 89 are slightly different from those that have already been widely used. Our analysis shows that a broad range of coefficient

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Yonghe Liu, Jinming Feng, Zongliang Yang, Yonghong Hu, and Jianlin Li

, 2006 : Development of a 50-year high-resolution global dataset of meteorological forcings for land surface modeling . J. Climate , 19 , 3088 – 3111 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3790.1 . 10.1175/JCLI3790.1 Shin , Y. , and B. P. Mohanty , 2013 : Development of a deterministic downscaling algorithm for remote sensing soil moisture footprint using soil and vegetation classifications . Water Resour. Res. , 49 , 6208 – 6228 , https://doi.org/10.1002/wrcr.20495 . 10.1002/wrcr.20495 Sunyer

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W.-K. Tao, T. Iguchi, and S. Lang

mainly from evaporation prevails beneath the melting level. Therefore, Tao et al. (1993) proposed a LH algorithm known as the CSH algorithm. It used a simple LUT consisting of rain-normalized Q 1 profiles for the convective and stratiform region composited for land and ocean from sounding budgets and a few GCE simulations. The CSH algorithm’s performance was tested through self-consistency checking using GCE-simulated cloud heating data as “truth” ( Tao et al. 2000 ), and the algorithm was used to

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Mark Kulie, Lisa Milani, Stephen J. Munchak, Norman B. Wood, and Vincenzo Levizzani

-ocean retrievals are much more susceptible than those over land because of classification errors in the radar-based methods that do not use information about the temperature structure near the surface. This does not necessarily mean that the GMI GPROF and CloudSat 2CSP approach is always better than the DPR approach since it relies upon a model analysis, which may be in error, particularly near sharp temperature gradients and complex terrain, whereas the DPR approach uses the radar measurements more directly

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Catherine M. Naud, James F. Booth, Matthew Lebsock, and Mircea Grecu

latitudinal coverage, observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E; Kawanishi et al. 2003 ) are also used over the oceans ( Kummerow et al. 2011 ), but this instrument has some sensitivity issues in the midlatitudes ( Stephens et al. 2010 ; Behrangi et al. 2012 ). The availability of gridded combined products such as the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; Adler et al. 2003 ) helps to overcome the coverage issue, but these are typically

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Xiang Ni, Chuntao Liu, Daniel J. Cecil, and Qinghong Zhang

stronger scattering at 37 GHz. Fig . 11. Median reflectivity profiles of TRMM PFs that have minimum 37-GHz PCT of less than 230 K over land from 1998 to 2013, as shown in Fig. 10 . 4. Summary and discussion On the basis of previous studies about global distributions of hailstorms using passive microwave observations, we examine the performance of spaceborne precipitation radar reflectivity and passive microwave brightness temperature for the detection of hailstorms with large-size hail (>19 mm

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Kenneth D. Leppert II and Daniel J. Cecil

of simulations where all hydrometeor types were included suggest little sensitivity of BTs at any frequency to changing any PSD parameter of rain, big drops, or snow. The emission signal of liquid hydrometeor types can be important over ocean (radiometrically cold background) at lower frequencies (e.g., Wilheit et al. 1991 ). However, the radiometrically warm background of land (used here) provides relatively little distinction from the emission from liquid in a cloud. In addition, ice above

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Sarah D. Bang and Daniel J. Cecil

.S. National Weather Service to warn for a severe thunderstorm, and severe hail is often a harbinger of other violent weather to come ( Bluestein and Parker 1993 ; Johns and Hart 1998 ). Hailstorms’ destructive potential and their place at the upper reach of the intensity spectrum of convective precipitation drives the need within the meteorological community to establish global hail climatologies, which can be constructed using either ground-report-based or remotely sensed approaches. While there are

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