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Wan-Ling Tseng, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Noel Keenlyside, Chiung-Wen June Chang, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Chia-Ying Tu, and Li-Chiang Jiang

using an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) in an aquaplanet setting, which is forced by the prescribed MJO-like moving SST. However, this AGCM poorly simulated the MJO and could not resolve the complex orography and land–sea contrast in the MC because of a very coarse model resolution. Takasuka et al. (2015) conduct high-resolution model simulations with and without flat land in the MC and suggest that the land–ocean zonal contrast of latent heat flux is the major reason for the slower

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Lei Zhou, Ruomei Ruan, and Raghu Murtugudde

the Maritime Continent near the equator, while some are detoured southward and cross the Maritime Continent around 10°S. There are also cases where MJOs are blocked by the Maritime Continent and cannot reach the Pacific Ocean ( DeMott et al. 2015 ; Feng et al. 2015 ; Kerns and Chen 2016 ; Kim et al. 2016 ; Zhang and Ling 2017 ). The complex land–sea distributions and orography with multiscale air–sea interactions over the Maritime Continent have resulted in different mechanisms being proposed

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Daehyun Kang, Daehyun Kim, Min-Seop Ahn, and Soon-Il An

moisture in the southern MC (SMC) region during boreal winter. We then examine the large-scale SST and precipitable water (PW) anomalies associated with the background meridional moisture gradient (MMG) index. Using the index, the MJO propagation processes, including the column-integrated moisture budget of the MJO, are analyzed in years with a relatively high and low background MMG, and the results are compared with each other. The summary and conclusions are presented in section 4 . 2. Data and

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D. Argüeso, R. Romero, and V. Homar

using either the same model ( Hassim et al. 2016 ; Vincent and Lane 2017 ) or different ones ( Love et al. 2011 ; Birch et al. 2016 ; Im and Elthair 2018 ). Increasing resolution has a positive effect on DP experiments by reducing the wet bias both over land and water, but the other two experiments (SH and EX) seem to worsen at higher resolution over land and show only some improvement over the ocean. For example, EX runs deviate from the observations average over land between 44% (32 km) and 75

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Jian Ling, Yuqing Zhao, and Guiwan Chen

resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° is used to identify individual MJO events in the observation. Other variables covering the same period are three-dimensional wind fields, air temperature, specific humidity (0.75° × 0.75°) provided by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts interim reanalysis (ERA-I) ( Dee et al. 2011 ) and NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature, version 2 (OISSTv2; Reynolds et al. 2007 ), with a horizontal resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° provided by

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Chu-Chun Chen, Min-Hui Lo, Eun-Soon Im, Jin-Yi Yu, Yu-Chiao Liang, Wei-Ting Chen, Iping Tang, Chia-Wei Lan, Ren-Jie Wu, and Rong-You Chien

1. Introduction Anthropogenic land use and land cover changes, especially deforestation, can have substantial effects on the local and remote climate. For instance, deforestation can directly alter the partitioning of local surface energy and the water budget, leading to changes in precipitation (e.g., Zeng and Neelin 1999 ; Pielke et al. 2007 ; Mahmood et al. 2014 ; Lawrence and Vandecar 2015 ). Tropical rain forests have lower albedos, larger leaf and stem areas for evapotranspiration

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

30-day period using a mesoscale model with horizontal grid length of 4 km and found that the maximum diurnal cycle and greatest offshore extent of seaward-propagating precipitation occurred in the few days just prior to and just following the MJO active period. Despite a large wet bias over the land, the main physical processes were modeled realistically. In this current study, we use a 10-yr simulation of the austral summer (1 December–28 February) over the whole MC region with a horizontal grid

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Chidong Zhang and Jian Ling

distinguish ours from previous studies on the same subject. The first is a method of tracking MJO precipitation, which has been used by Ling et al. (2014) to compare global versus local MJO prediction skills. Using this method, we identified MJO events, separated MJO-B from MJO-C, and obtained quantitative information of the barrier effect that was unavailable before. The second distinct aspect of this study is that we examined detailed distributions of the MJO precipitation over the sea and land in the

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Casey D. Burleyson, Samson M. Hagos, Zhe Feng, Brandon W. J. Kerns, and Daehyun Kim

, they target processes that are absent in the open-ocean regions of the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans where the barrier effect is less pronounced. This study addresses the related question of why some MJO episodes intensify over the MC while others weaken. Fig . 1. Elevation of the islands of the MC. The black rectangles denote the NH and SH domains we use for averaging throughout the paper. Several previous studies laid the groundwork for our investigation. Maloney and Sobel (2004

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

of heat or energy, and the reference value, taken as 0°C, has resulted in the choice of 1.08 PW associated with 15-Sv volume transport; if 10°C were used instead, the redistribution values would be about 0.61 PW less. This arbitrariness vanishes when anomalies are considered. The mean annual cycle ( Fig. 5 ) has considerable character. Southward heat transports dominate the southern winter from May to October from the land north of the equator, while pronounced northward transport of energy

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