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Peter J. Marinescu, Susan C. van den Heever, Max Heikenfeld, Andrew I. Barrett, Christian Barthlott, Corinna Hoose, Jiwen Fan, Ann M. Fridlind, Toshi Matsui, Annette K. Miltenberger, Philip Stier, Benoit Vie, Bethan A. White, and Yuwei Zhang

CCN concentrations is sensitive to boundary layer moisture (e.g., Fan et al. 2007 ), convective available potential energy (CAPE; Lee et al. 2008 ; Storer et al. 2010 ), and wind shear ( Lee et al. 2008 ; Fan et al. 2009 ). Case study simulations, which often provide more realism than idealized simulations, have also been used to assess the impacts of environmental parameters. For example, mesoscale convective systems in environments with different relative humidity ( Khain et al. 2005 ; Fan

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Jie Peng, Zhanqing Li, Hua Zhang, Jianjun Liu, and Maureen Cribb

unreliability of the AE retrieval from MODIS over land ( Levy et al. 2010 ), AI and AOD were used as proxies for aerosol loading over oceans and land, respectively. Table 2. Fractional distribution of AOD values over the domain considered in this study from 2007 to 2010. Following Peng et al. (2014) , CloudSat products were used to identify all single-layer deep clouds and to obtain their mean properties, as well as to obtain meteorological parameters. Mean cloud-top heights (CTH) and cloud-base heights

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Wojciech W. Grabowski

-type simulations targeting aerosol effects are those of Tao et al. (2007) and references therein, Morrison and Grabowski (2011) , and Grabowski and Morrison (2016 ; hereinafter GM16 ). Using a novel modeling methodology referred to as “piggybacking” applied to the case of daytime convective development over land based on observations during the Large-Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere (LBA) field project in Amazonia, GM16 show that simulated differences between pristine (PRI) and polluted (POL) clouds come

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Andrew R. Jongeward, Zhanqing Li, Hao He, and Xiaoxiong Xiong

observations at more than 150 national wilderness and park locations across the United States. In 1999, the U.S. EPA, in collaboration with federal and state air and land managers, announced the Regional Haze Program (RHP) to improve air quality and visibility conditions in the nation’s Class I areas (visually protected federal areas; http://www.epa.gov/visibility/visibility-regional-haze-program ). The IMPROVE Network collects 24-h air samples every third day, and IMPROVE data have been used to monitor

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Baolin Jiang, Bo Huang, Wenshi Lin, and Suishan Xu

Hydrologic Research Laboratory’s land surface module ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ; Ek et al. 2003 ). In addition, a chemical reaction model was based on the Regional Acid Deposition Model, version 2 ( Stockwell et al. 1990 ), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe/Secondary Organic Aerosol Model (MADE/SORGAM) ( Ackermann et al. 1998 ; Schell et al. 2001 ) was used as the driver module of the aerosols. In MADE/SORGAM, the chemical composition of the Aitken and accumulation modes generally contains

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

CCN concentrations were elevated ( Thompson and Eidhammer 2014 ). Using multiple years of TRMM and MODIS data, Yuan et al. (2011a) showed that the extreme precipitation intensity of tropical convection in the Pacific warm pool region is increased as a result of increase of sulfate concentration. Koren et al. (2012) further argued that the intensification of rain rates by aerosols could be found over both the ocean and land and from tropics to midlatitudes based on the TRMM and MODIS

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Tianmeng Chen, Jianping Guo, Zhanqing Li, Chuanfeng Zhao, Huan Liu, Maureen Cribb, Fu Wang, and Jing He

uncertainties in the widely adopted approach of using AOD to approximate the CCN ( Niu and Li 2012 ). Besides, cloud contamination and bright land surfaces can tarnish the retrieval of AOD ( Li et al. 2009 ) as for a similar ROI used by F. Wang et al. (2015) . Furthermore, active remote sensors, such as the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on board the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation ( CALIPSO ) platform, cannot detect aerosols

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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Francesca Malfatti, Camille M. Sultana, Christopher Lee, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Kathryn A. Moore, Gavin C. Cornwell, Douglas B. Collins, Kimberly A. Prather, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Farooq Azam, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, and Paul J. DeMott

supercooled liquid ( Vali et al. 2015 )] ranging from 3 to 250 m −3 (median 14 m −3 ) over the Southern Ocean ( Bigg 1973 ). More recently, DeMott et al. (2015) compared number concentrations and surface site densities of aerosols observed in some marine environments with laboratory studies where generated sea spray was the only INP source. Their data suggest that marine INPs are distinctly less efficient than land-sourced INPs such that the ice nucleating ability of marine aerosol needs to be

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Yan Yang, Jiwen Fan, L. Ruby Leung, Chun Zhao, Zhanqing Li, and Daniel Rosenfeld

quasi-global WRF-Chem simulation ( Zhao et al. 2013b ). The Yonsei University (YSU) planetary boundary layer scheme ( Hong et al. 2006 ), Unified Noah land surface scheme ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ), Morrison two-moment microphysics scheme ( Morrison et al. 2005 ), and RRTMG longwave and shortwave radiation schemes ( Iacono et al. 2008 ) are used in this study. At the 3-km convection-permitting scale, cumulus cloud parameterization is not needed. The model setup and physical schemes are shown in Table

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Stacey Kawecki, Geoffrey M. Henebry, and Allison L. Steiner

anthropogenic activity, and aerosol–cloud interactions resulting from these emissions have the potential to alter the growth of clouds and precipitation. In one modeling study, an increase in precipitation downwind of Houston, Texas, was attributed to local meteorological feedbacks (e.g., land-use change causing an enhanced sea breeze) over increased urban aerosol concentrations ( Carrió et al. 2010 ). However, other studies have demonstrated that urban aerosols can increase downwind precipitation through

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