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Robert Conrick and Clifford F. Mass

profiles of simulated reflectivity consistent with observed hydrometeor profiles? Do varying environmental conditions, such as those of different midlatitude storm sectors, influence model skill? Does the accuracy of simulated rain rate or reflectivity depend on surface type (ocean vs land)? This paper is organized as follows: section 2 reviews GPM data and model configuration, section 3 describes results of our model evaluation using GPM, and section 4 offers concluding remarks. 2. Model

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Robert Conrick, Clifford F. Mass, and Qi Zhong

: A numerical study on sea/land breezes as a gravity current: Kelvin–Helmholtz billows and inland penetration of the sea-breeze front . J. Atmos. Sci. , 48 , 1649 – 1665 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1991)048<1649:ANSOSB>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1991)048<1649:ANSOSB>2.0.CO;2 Skamarock , W. C. , 2004 : Evaluating mesoscale NWP models using kinetic energy spectra . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 132 , 3019 – 3032 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR2830.1 . 10.1175/MWR2830.1 Skamarock , W. C. , J

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, Robert A. Houze Jr., and Simone Tanelli

lee side is very dry ( Fig. 1 ). In a recent study using OLYMPEX data, Purnell and Kirshbaum (2018 , hereafter PK18 ) used rain gauges and operational National Weather Service radars to show that orographic precipitation distributions are highly sensitive to the upstream static stability, horizontal moisture flux, and the presence of preexisting precipitation associated with the large-scale synoptic storm sectors. McMurdie et al. (2018) found that when the large-scale conditions resembled warm

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, and Robert A. Houze Jr.

retrievals of precipitation over land since the precipitation estimates are somewhat biased toward the mean rain rate associated with a given ice-scattering signature ( Kummerow et al. 2011 , 2015 ). Acknowledgments The authors thank M. Wingo, B. Baccus, C. Urnes, A. Hart, N. Johnson, S. Domokos, H. Mohrmann, B. Jameson, B. Gilles, and J. Nowak for making major contributions to deployment and maintenance of the ground sites used in this study. The authors would also like to thank the Olympic National

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Hannah C. Barnes, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, Angela K. Rowe, and Robert A. Houze Jr.

.g., Browning and Watkins 1970 ; Gossard et al. 1970 ; Browning 1971 ; Shapiro 1980 ). Additionally, Houze and Medina (2005) and Houser and Bluestein (2011) found that these waves modify microphysical processes and might even impact the accumulation of precipitation. Using radar data and in situ aircraft observations, Houze and Medina (2005) showed an example of the upward branch of KH waves increasing supercooled water content and riming above the melting layer when the waves are located near the

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Annareli Morales, Hugh Morrison, and Derek J. Posselt

for snow growth aloft, while a narrower barrier will generate more graupel through the collection of supercooled cloud droplets ( Colle and Zeng 2004b ). Wider barriers are thus more sensitive to parameters such as snow fall speed over the windward slope. Hobbs et al. (1973) demonstrated the degree of ice particle riming influences where ice particles will precipitate over a mountain, that is, heavily rimed particles fall out faster and land on the windward slope. Microphysical parameterizations

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