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Thomas R. Loveland and Rezaul Mahmood

Sustained assessment of the climatic impacts of land use and land cover change is essential. Land use and land cover change (LULCC) plays an important role in the climate system. Many studies have documented the impacts of LULCC on local, regional, and global climate. The National Climate Assessment Report ( Melillo et al. 2014 ) identifies LULCC as a “cross cutting” issue of future climate change studies. This report, and the previous U.S. Climate Change Science Program strategic plan (2003

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Menglin Jin

Using satellite remote sensing techniques to take quantitative observations of the climate system will advance our knowledge and ability to model the climate system and its changes. Polar-orbiting satellite records of global land surface skin temperature (LST) observations have high coverage and quality. Although limited in accuracy, and to a few years in length, these measurements are extremely useful because they are improvements on existing data.

This paper introduces a global, long-duration satellite diurnal cycle dataset of LST for 1981–98. LST measurements from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors are generally only twice per day for most areas and suffer problems such as cloud contamination and orbital drift. These problems are corrected using the algorithms developed by Jin and Dickinson, Jin, and Jin and Treadon, and consequently provide a long-term, monthly, global 8-km land surface skin temperature diurnal cycle dataset (LSTD) for temporally consistent LST records.

As a unique and independent resource, LSTD is valuable for studying the land surface climate and for evaluating model performance. For the first time, in this paper, the diurnal, seasonal, and interannual variations of LST are presented as a prototype use of this dataset. In addition, LSTD is compared with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis, in situ air temperature, the NOAA's Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) observations, and shows encouraging consistencies on major features. These consistencies suggest that LSTD will be very valuable for climate change study.

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Mathias W. Rotach, Georg Wohlfahrt, Armin Hansel, Matthias Reif, Johannes Wagner, and Alexander Gohm

The incorporation of mesoscale circulations would increase the accuracy of global (or regional) atmospheric carbon budget models—A finding that calls for more much-needed research. Anthropogenic activities, such as combustion of fossil fuels plus cement production and land use changes, result in large CO 2 emissions into Earth's atmosphere. The corresponding CO 2 emission values for the year 2011 are 9.5 ± 0.5 and 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr −1 , respectively ( Le Quéré et al. 2013 ). About half of the

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Russell S. Vose, Derek Arndt, Viva F. Banzon, David R. Easterling, Byron Gleason, Boyin Huang, Ed Kearns, Jay H. Lawrimore, Matthew J. Menne, Thomas C. Peterson, Richard W. Reynolds, Thomas M. Smith, Claude N. Williams Jr., and David B. Wuertz

and the Climatic Research Unit (HadCRUT; Brohan et al. 2006 ). (Note that the Japan Meteorological Agency now has a global dataset, and land-only products are available from other groups, such as the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project.) In general, each group uses somewhat different input data and substantially different approaches. For instance, GISS makes extensive use of satellite data, NCDC only uses satellite data in a limited capacity, and HadCRUT uses no satellite data at all

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John T. Sullivan, Timothy Berkoff, Guillaume Gronoff, Travis Knepp, Margaret Pippin, Danette Allen, Laurence Twigg, Robert Swap, Maria Tzortziou, Anne M. Thompson, Ryan M. Stauffer, Glenn M. Wolfe, James Flynn, Sally E. Pusede, Laura M. Judd, William Moore, Barry D. Baker, Jay Al-Saadi, and Thomas J. McGee

(airborne, shipborne, and vehicular) observations connecting the two sites, pollutant gradients were directly observed and used to better understand the underlying fundamental processes occurring at the land–water interface. Fig . 1. Overview of OWLETS ground sites, mobile unit pathways, research cruise routes, and aircraft sorties. The research sites were integrated with a combination of remote sensing (profilers), surface analyzing, passive, and balloonborne instrumentation (see Table 1 ). To better

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Eric Rappin, Rezaul Mahmood, Udaysankar Nair, Roger A. Pielke Sr., William Brown, Steve Oncley, Joshua Wurman, Karen Kosiba, Aaron Kaulfus, Chris Phillips, Emilee Lachenmeier, Joseph Santanello Jr., Edward Kim, and Patricia Lawston-Parker

Land-use–land-cover changes (LULCCs) play an important role in modulating weather and climate [National Research Council (NRC); NRC 2005 ; Pielke et al. 2011 ; Mahmood et al. 2010 , 2014 ; Pielke et al. 2016 ]. Evidence of its importance can be found in the Third National Climate Assessment ( Melillo et al. 2014 ), Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) in support of the Fifth Assessment of Climate Change by the IPCC (e.g., Brovkin et al. 2013 ), Land-Use and Climate

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Hylke E. Beck, Eric F. Wood, Ming Pan, Colby K. Fisher, Diego G. Miralles, Albert I. J. M. van Dijk, Tim R. McVicar, and Robert F. Adler

-free global maps of β WD were produced for the reanalyses to correct the P frequency prior to the data merging. See “Global maps of weights and wet-day biases” in the appendix for details. MSWEP V1 used Climate Hazards Group’s precipitation climatology (CHPclim; 0.05° resolution; Funk et al. 2015a ) to determine the long-term mean over the land surface. For MSWEP V2, we used WorldClim (1-km resolution; Fick and Hijmans 2017 ) because of the better P gauge coverage. Systematic P underestimation

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M. J. Best and C. S. B. Grimmond

, but it is difficult to identify which are the dominant processes just from observations as the processes cannot be separated because of the complex nature of the environment. As such, the best way to study these processes individually is by using urban land surface models (ULSMs) that have been developed for weather and climate applications (i.e., exchange surface fluxes with an atmospheric model). There are a number of such ULSMs that vary considerably in their complexity (e.g., Kusaka et al

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Justin L. Huntington, Katherine C. Hegewisch, Britta Daudert, Charles G. Morton, John T. Abatzoglou, Daniel J. McEvoy, and Tyler Erickson

-demand cloud computing and web visualization is extremely useful for better understanding the drivers and impacts of drought from multiple perspectives and disciplines (i.e., land surface energy balance, vegetation, near-surface boundary layer). Snow drought is a term that has been recently used to describe the lack of snow depth or coverage that occurs simultaneously with near-normal or above-normal precipitation conditions. A snow drought occurred during the winter and spring of 2014/15 over the

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Shunlin Liang, Jie Cheng, Kun Jia, Bo Jiang, Qiang Liu, Zhiqiang Xiao, Yunjun Yao, Wenping Yuan, Xiaotong Zhang, Xiang Zhao, and Ji Zhou

series and the MODIS surface reflectance data ( Xiao et al. 2014 ) or the AVHRR surface reflectance data ( Xiao et al. 2016c ). The LAI time series integrates the MODIS ( Myneni et al. 2002 ) and the Carbon Cycle and Change in Land Observational Products from an Ensemble of Satellites (CYCLOPES) ( Baret et al. 2007 ) LAI products. Unlike existing neural network methods that use only satellite data acquired at a specific time to retrieve the LAI, the GLASS LAI algorithm uses preprocessed reflectance

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