Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 1,940 items for :

  • Journal of Hydrometeorology x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Abel T. Woldemichael, Faisal Hossain, and Roger Pielke Sr.

(hereafter, “dams” will be used interchangeably with “artificial reservoirs”) are used for water supply ( International Commission on Large Dams 1999 ). However, applications also include irrigation for agriculture, flood control, hydropower, land navigation, and recreation. Past civilizations have used dams for their various intended purposes. To date, large numbers of dams have been constructed at different regions in the world that vary in their hydroclimatology and land features (topography). To meet

Full access
Yan Zhang, James A. Smith, Lifeng Luo, Zifa Wang, and Mary Lynn Baeck

(USGS) land use–land cover classification are delineated by the black (gray) contours (bottom). The center points of each TRMM grid cell at 0.25° are shown (bottom). The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes all observational data used in this study and presents the observational analyses on the regional precipitation variability in the greater Beijing area. Section 3 then presents the numerical sensitivity study to examine the impacts of urban expansion on regional precipitation

Full access
Don Cline, Simon Yueh, Bruce Chapman, Boba Stankov, Al Gasiewski, Dallas Masters, Kelly Elder, Richard Kelly, Thomas H. Painter, Steve Miller, Steve Katzberg, and Larry Mahrt

1. Introduction Airborne sensors provide many unique observing capabilities to help understand cold land processes. Aircraft platforms provide flexibility in data collection not generally found with spaceborne systems, improving opportunities for coordinating remote sensing observations with ground observations and for adapting to changing conditions. Seven airborne sensors ( Table 1 ) were used to observe the surface and near-surface of the study areas of the Cold Land Processes Experiment

Full access
Tosiyuki Nakaegawa

use of land cover monitoring in land surface sciences. As a result, several 1-km global land cover datasets have been produced by multiple research institutions, generally with moderate-resolution optical sensor data. These global land cover datasets have been used for both global and regional studies because they cover all continents and islands with sufficient spatial resolution (1 km). However, comparative analysis of different land cover datasets showed per-pixel agreement of only about 0.6 (e

Full access
Long Yang, James A. Smith, Daniel B. Wright, Mary Lynn Baeck, Gabriele Villarini, Fuqiang Tian, and Heping Hu

1. Introduction In this paper, we examine the hydroclimatology, hydrometeorology, and hydrology of floods through analyses centered on the Menomonee River basin in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, metropolitan region ( Fig. 1 ). The Menomonee River basin, which has a drainage area of 319 km 2 , exhibits heterogeneous land use and land cover, including some of the most heavily urbanized portions of Milwaukee ( Zhang and Smith 2003 ). Adjacent to the northern boundary of the Menomonee River basin is the

Full access
Jamie Dyer

anthropogenic modification of spatial boundaries in land use/land cover through agricultural practices can have an influence on regional weather variability through these processes ( Brown and Arnold 1998 ). In addition, agricultural land use can influence the dynamics of the boundary layer through variations in surface roughness over the growing season, effectively modifying existing subsynoptic and mesoscale flow regimes by varying the intensity of turbulent mixing through the radix layer. The energy

Full access
Liang Chen, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Ahmed Tawfik, and David M. Lawrence

1. Introduction The interaction between the land surface and atmosphere is an important element of the climate system. Land-use/land-cover changes (LULCCs) can modify the surface energy and water fluxes and can therefore affect climate at regional and broader scales. Within the land–atmosphere coupling “process chain” ( Santanello et al. 2011 ), the land surface affects precipitation by influencing planetary boundary layer (PBL) development thereby triggering and maintaining convection

Full access
O. A. Tuinenburg, R. W. A. Hutjes, T. Stacke, A. Wiltshire, and P. Lucas-Picher

-scale irrigation in India. The effects of the large-scale land use changes in India on the atmosphere and especially on precipitation have been the subject of numerous studies. Generally, the increased moisture availability at the land surface is thought to result in two opposing atmospheric effects. On the one hand, the increased moisture influx into the atmosphere may increase the moist static energy of the atmosphere and, subsequently, the chances of convective precipitation. On the other hand, when the

Full access
Xuejin Wang, Baoqing Zhang, Feng Li, Xiang Li, Xuliang Li, Yibo Wang, Rui Shao, Jie Tian, and Chansheng He

1. Introduction Land use/cover change (LUCC) has been widely investigated in the past few decades, and it has been found that more than half of the land surface on Earth has been altered by human activities ( Pitman et al. 2009 ; Baldocchi 2014 ) such as deforestation, agricultural expansion, and urbanization. Forest losses amplify the diurnal temperature variation and increase the average and maximum air temperature ( Alkama and Cescatti 2016 ), they also increase catchment erosion and

Full access
Jessica C. A. Baker, Dayana Castilho de Souza, Paulo Y. Kubota, Wolfgang Buermann, Caio A. S. Coelho, Martin B. Andrews, Manuel Gloor, Luis Garcia-Carreras, Silvio N. Figueroa, and Dominick V. Spracklen

1. Introduction Global climate models offer a way to predict how increasing anthropogenic emissions and land-use change will impact climate. However, before models can be reliably used for future projections, it is necessary to validate their performance in the present day, including their ability to represent key physical processes in the climate system ( Flato et al. 2013 ). Such process-based model evaluation has become increasingly important as models have gained in complexity, with novel

Open access