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Dorian Speakman

. Horticulturalists focused on long-term strategic measures such as raising the height of shelter belts, which were seen as part of good practice. However, despite two adverse weather events in one season, they found that the majority of farmers did not make any long-term adaptive investment, as they felt that the frequency of adverse weather did not justify the outlay. In England, those farmers badly affected by flooding in summer 2007 were considering permanent changes to land use on the floodplain as well as

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Saeideh Maleki, Saeid Soltani Koupaei, Alireza Soffianian, Sassan Saatchi, Saeid Pourmanafi, and Vahid Rahdari

water due to warming can readily create cascading effects on water resources ( Barrios et al. 2008 ; Ye and Grimm 2013 ). Since semiarid and arid regions are already water limited, any decrease in water supplies from droughts rapidly threatens both people and wildlife ( El-Khoury et al. 2015 ; Li et al. 2009 ). Furthermore, human activities in terms of land degradation, unsustainable land-use changes and water resource management, and inefficient irrigation methods significantly exacerbate the

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Keith R. Spangler, Amanda H. Lynch, and Stephanie A. Spera

1. Introduction Brazil has experienced unprecedented rates of land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) over the past several decades ( Nepstad et al. 2009 ), driven in part by the clearing of tropical rain forest and adjacent savanna for increasing agricultural production ( Morton et al. 2006 ). Indeed, Brazilian gross domestic agricultural product (GDAP, as measured by constant 2010 U.S. dollars) has risen steadily by nearly a factor of 5 since 1965, exceeding $104 billion (U.S. dollars) in 2015

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Stephen M. Strader, Walker S. Ashley, Thomas J. Pingel, and Andrew J. Krmenec

conterminous United States. Model accuracy was measured by employing a hindcast technique in conjunction with U.S. Census Bureau historical population and HU metrics ( Theobald 2005 ). Cross-validation results between the hindcast and U.S. Census Bureau metrics indicated that SERGoM HU estimations performed well with accuracies ranging from 80% to 91% ( Theobald 2005 ). b. Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios and Special Report Emissions Scenarios data More recently, the Integrated Climate and Land-Use

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Kyle Andrew Poyar and Nancy Beller-Simms

sensitive to climate variability and change such as water, sewer, and transportation infrastructure; disaster and emergency preparedness; coastal resources; land use and zoning; and water quality and supply. In Chicago, for instance, it has been estimated that the future impacts of climate change will cost the municipal government alone more than $2.5 billion from 2010 to 2099 ( Oliver Wyman Group 2008 ). These losses are expected to arise mostly from relatively commonplace alterations to municipal

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José L. Hernández, Syewoon Hwang, Francisco Escobedo, April H. Davis, and James W. Jones

analysis by Kautz et al. (2007) , who showed a significant land use change (LUC) of several nonurban categories into urban or developed. The authors report urban conversions of 14.02% for agriculture and pasture areas, 36.27% for shrubland, 25.44% for dry prairie, and 11.32% for upland forests. Recent studies in Florida include not only the geographical description of land use and land cover change, but the impact of such transformations on climate conditions. Modeling the impact of landscape

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Tobias Siegfried, Stefan Sobolowski, Pradeep Raj, Ram Fishman, Victor Vasquez, Kapil Narula, Upmanu Lall, and Vijay Modi

for addressing these issues. Crop choice and area set aside for production in addition to climatological factors and management techniques determine water use in agriculture. So far, understanding agricultural response to variability in economic and climatic boundary conditions has been primarily focused on modeling agricultural yields at different scales (e.g., see the review by Challinor et al. 2009 , and references therein). However, accurately forecasting the timing and magnitude of important

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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

1950s and 1960s to persistent dry conditions in the 1970s and 1980s is, in magnitude and spatial extent, unparalleled globally in the instrumental record ( Nicholson 2000 ; Hulme 2001 ; Trenberth et al. 2007 ; Greene et al. 2009 ). During the early 1970s, meteorologists posited that the drying was the result of local human activity in a positive feedback loop between poor land use practices, land degradation, and atmospheric response ( Charney 1975 ). Predating acid rain and global warming, the

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Walker S. Ashley, Stephen Strader, Troy Rosencrants, and Andrew J. Krmenec

a buffer, neighborhood boundary, or similar administrative overlay. Dasymetric mapping, which applies ancillary information (e.g., land use/cover data) to inform the areal estimation and interpolation of attributes such as population or housing units, is also suggested in the literature ( Holt et al. 2004 ; Mennis 2009 ). Although arguably superior for appraising demographic attributes ( Wu et al. 2005 ), it suffers from illogical stationarity when, for example, only one time stamp of ancillary

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Valeria Hernandez, Vincent Moron, Florencia Fossa Riglos, and Eugenia Muzi

according to different soils and land uses ( Slegers 2008 ). In Senegal, Mertz et al. (2009) found that farmers did not assign climate factors as the main reason for livelihood change. Nevertheless, they identified strong winds and occasional excessive rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Similarly, in central-south Senegal, Tschakert (2007) showed that climate also did not directly appear in people’s risk assessments. In contrast, Thomas et al. (2007) demonstrated that trends and

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