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Sarah Ringerud, Christa Peters-Lidard, Joe Munchak, and Yalei You

1. Introduction Accurate, physically based precipitation retrieval over global land surfaces is an important goal of the joint NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) ( Hou et al. 2014 ; Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2017 ). This is a challenging problem for the passive microwave constellation component of GPM, as the hydrometeor signal over radiometrically warm land surfaces in the microwave frequencies means that the measurements used in retrievals are more indirect than over

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Lisa Milani, Mark S. Kulie, Daniele Casella, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Giulia Panegrossi, Veljko Petkovic, Sarah E. Ringerud, Jean-François Rysman, Paolo Sanò, Nai-Yu Wang, Yalei You, and Gail Skofronick-Jackson

-CO overpass time in shallow cloud features located over the central lakes due to possible emission signatures observed in lower-frequency channels (not shown). Fig . 4. (a) MRMS-GV snowfall rate over Lakes Erie and Ontario on 20 Nov 2014 at 1820 UTC (orbit 4140), (b) GPROF precipitation rate (using the SurfPrecip parameter from the operational product), (c) GPROF PRT precipitation rate (≥0.08 mm h −1 ), and (d) surface classification as from the GPROF SurfType parameter: Sea ice edge (SIE), land/ocean or

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Abby Stevens, Rebecca Willett, Antonios Mamalakis, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Alejandro Tejedor, James T. Randerson, Padhraic Smyth, and Stephen Wright

; McCabe and Dettinger 1999 ; Dai 2013 ], also exhibit limited predictive skill. The main reason is that the complex and nonstationary interactions between large-scale dynamics and regional hydroclimate cannot be captured sufficiently well with a limited number of prespecified climate indices (regions used for computing sea surface temperature anomalies) as predictors, even when sophisticated statistical schemes are used (nonlinear statistical schemes, Bayesian techniques, etc.). Recognizing the

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Clément Guilloteau, Antonios Mamalakis, Lawrence Vulis, Phong V. V. Le, Tryphon T. Georgiou, and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

interest, exhibiting a plethora of modes caused by different physical processes (e.g., solar forcing, oceanic/atmospheric circulations, land–atmosphere interactions, etc.), and imprinting themselves at various spatial and temporal scales. The accurate identification and modeling of the modes of the climate system is necessary for many key problems in geosciences, such as weather/climate prediction, attribution of extreme events and hazards, and assessment of climate change impacts. The comprehensive

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Yagmur Derin, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and Jonathan J. Gourley

transition regions that involve diverse processes such as the coastal interface between land and ocean. A detailed understanding and observation of precipitation over the land–coast–ocean continuum is still lacking, especially since observations over oceans are limited by remoteness and scale. Observations of precipitation over the ocean can be conducted by using weather radars situated on islands and coastlines and with rain gauges on ships and buoy gauge arrays (e.g., Anagnostou et al. 1999 ; Smith

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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

pairs of rain-normalized convective and stratiform diabatic heating profiles [i.e., Q 1 or the apparent heat source; Yanai et al. (1973) ], one pair for land and one for ocean, obtained from composites of both GCE model ( Tao and Simpson 1993 ) simulations and sounding budget calculations; a single additional pair was later added for shallow heating. Using surface rainfall rates and the proportion of stratiform rain, cloud heating profiles could then be retrieved remotely from satellite or other

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F. Joseph Turk, Sarah E. Ringerud, Yalei You, Andrea Camplani, Daniele Casella, Giulia Panegrossi, Paolo Sanò, Ardeshir Ebtehaj, Clement Guilloteau, Nobuyuki Utsumi, Catherine Prigent, and Christa Peters-Lidard

, and the resolution and polarization (V/H) is valid only at nadir. LF = Low frequency, HF = high frequency, and LTAN = local time of ascending node. N/A = not applicable. Prior to the launch of TRMM, passive MW precipitation retrieval over land surfaces was done using largely empirical methods, typically involving empirical relationships relating 85 GHz (or higher frequency) TB depressions (due to scattering by the high-albedo ice aloft) to surface precipitation inferred from ground radars ( Grody

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Veljko Petković, Marko Orescanin, Pierre Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, and Ralph Ferraro

closer inspection of active- and passive-estimated precipitation distributions confirms that PMW biases exist over the majority of their characteristic precipitation rates. Results over ocean, not shown here, yield the same general conclusions. Fig . 1. Comparison of global over land pixel-level distribution of precipitation rate estimates of GPM’s DPR-combined (gray) and GMI (colored bars) products. (top) Convective and (bottom) stratiform systems are delineated using a 50% threshold for DPR

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Andrea Camplani, Daniele Casella, Paolo Sanò, and Giulia Panegrossi

available only over CONUS, all the results based on this dataset are valid at a regional scale. While all sun synchronous GMI orbits over CONUS have been considered, only ATMS ascending orbits (between 0600 and 1300 UTC), closest in time to the SNODAS reference time (0600 UTC), have been selected. The dataset has been built following the same procedures used for the development and validation datasets, obtaining a snow-cover occurrence index, a land fraction index (since SNODAS provides information only

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Yingzhao Ma, V. Chandrasekar, Haonan Chen, and Robert Cifelli

desired modules. The WRF-Hydro is capable of simulating water and energy fluxes at high spatial and temporal resolutions using a variety of physical and conceptual approaches. Thus, a land surface model (LSM) in both offline and fully coupled modes is developed, where two selections are available, i.e., Noah and Noah-MP ( Ek et al. 2003 ; Niu et al. 2011 ). The Noah-MP is the updated version of Noah, which has multiple options for LSM parameterizations and simulations. The operation of LSM requires

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