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Yasushi Fujiwara and Yutaka Yoshikawa

1. Introduction Langmuir circulations (LCs; Langmuir 1938 ) are roll circulations that arise in the surface mixed layer through the interaction of surface waves and currents. They regulate the air–sea fluxes of heat, momentum, and materials through turbulent mixing ( D’Asaro 2014 ) and are considered to be a large uncertainty in the present climate modeling ( Belcher et al. 2012 ). Dynamical understanding of LCs is necessary to construct better parameterizations and to obtain a better

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Yasushi Fujiwara, Yutaka Yoshikawa, and Yoshimasa Matsumura

1. Introduction Among various processes that occur in the oceanic surface boundary layer, Langmuir circulations (LCs) receive attention because they are believed to modulate the air–sea heat/material exchange through an enhancement of turbulent mixing ( Langmuir 1938 ; Smith 1992 ; Belcher et al. 2012 ; D’Asaro 2014 ; Li et al. 2016 ). In the formation of LCs, the interaction between surface waves and mean flow is believed to play a central role. Craik and Leibovich (1976 , hereinafter CL

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Yasushi Fujiwara, Yutaka Yoshikawa, and Yoshimasa Matsumura

1. Introduction Using a latest nonhydrostatic free-surface numerical model, Fujiwara et al. (2018 , hereinafter FYM ) performed a wave-resolving simulation (WRS) to study the driving mechanism of simulated Langmuir circulations. In their analysis, FYM found that the simulated wave-induced torque is very well represented by the curl of the vortex force in the Craik–Leibovich (CL) equation ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 , hereinafter CL76 ) in that particular case. Mellor (2019 , hereinafter M

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Henry Chang, Helga S. Huntley, A. D. Kirwan Jr., Daniel F. Carlson, Jean A. Mensa, Sanchit Mehta, Guillaume Novelli, Tamay M. Özgökmen, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Brodie Pearson, Jenna Pearson, Ramsey R. Harcourt, and Andrew C. Poje

near oceanic fronts ( D’Asaro et al. 2018 ). Here we seek to begin to fill that gap, using an innovative dataset of optically tracked floating bamboo plates ( Carlson et al. 2018 ), which provides higher space and time resolution for the trajectories than available from classic Lagrangian drifter and float data. Specifically, we focus on the dispersive properties during a Langmuir event. Langmuir circulation (LC) is characterized by counterrotating vortices aligned with the wind direction

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Amit Tandon and Sidney Leibovich

1206 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME25Secondary Instabilities in Langmuir Circulations AMIT TANDONSchool of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria. British Columbia, Canada SIDNEY LEIBOVICHSibley School of Mechanical and ,4erospace Engineering, Come# University. Ithaca, New York(Manuscript received 10 January 1994, in final form 23 September 1994

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Alan J. Faller and Randall W. Cartwright

FEBRUARY 1983 ALAN J. FALLER AND RANDALL W. CARTWRIGHT 329Laboratory Studies of Langmuir Circulations ALAN J. FALLERInstitute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park 20742 RANDALL W. CARTWRIGHT1Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland, College Park 20742(Manuscript received 21 May 1982, in final form 27 September 1982

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Ming Li and Chris Garrett

1. Introduction When the wind blows across a stratified ocean, a surface mixed layer (SML) develops in which the density is approximately uniform. The lower boundary is marked by a strongly stratified transition region. The density jump across this increases as the mixed layer deepens. Shear-driven turbulence may contribute to the mixing and density homogenization in the SML during wind events, but another important process is wind-driven Langmuir circulation (LC). This consists of a pattern of

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Ke Li, Zhexuan Zhang, Greg Chini, and Glenn Flierl

structure of the vertical stratification and the development of the surface boundary layer. More significant, perhaps, is the omission in most prior investigations (including those referenced above) of surface wave effects on the stability of ML fronts, which not only precludes the occurrence of Langmuir circulation (LC), a primary vertical mixing mechanism in the ocean surface boundary layer under wind forced seas ( Leibovich 1983 ; McWilliams et al. 1997 ; Thorpe 2004 ), but also the modification

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Malcolm E. Scully, Alexander W. Fisher, Steven E. Suttles, Lawrence P. Sanford, and William C. Boicourt

1. Introduction There is considerable evidence that the presence of Langmuir circulation (LC) fundamentally alters the dynamics of the surface boundary layer in the ocean ( Weller and Price 1988 ; Li and Garrett 1997 ; Kukulka et al. 2010 ; Belcher et al. 2012 ). Various mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of LC, but the most widely accepted explanation is that the wave-driven Stokes drift tilts vertical vorticity into the streamwise direction, leading to coherent vortices that

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S. A. Thorpe, T. R. Osborn, D. M. Farmer, and S. Vagle

(1984c) , Farmer and Li (1995) , and Thorpe et al. (2003) —that bubble bands form within the downwelling regions produced by Langmuir circulation (hereinafter referred to as Lc). Zedel and Farmer (1991) demonstrate that the most intense and deepest-going bubble clouds appear within these bands, while Thorpe et al. (2003) show that the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass ε is, on average, enhanced within the bands. There has, however, been no simultaneous measurements

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