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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

. (2009) showed that wave breaking has a much larger effect on the TKE budget than Langmuir circulation. Based on this study, uncertainty induced by Langmuir circulation, a process not considered here, is presumed to be second order compared to uncertainty associated with F . Ultimately, our analysis suggests that (i) care is needed in interpreting ϵ χ in approximately the top meter and (ii) turbulent diffusion of TKE from the surface can explain why ϵ χ profiles do not increase approaching the

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, Emily L. Shroyer, and William D. Smyth

.01) m to O (1) m depending on the surface cooling, depth-dependence of solar absorption, and time of day (e.g., Woods 1980 ). If wave-driven mixing and Langmuir circulation are negligible, then this depth may be a better estimate of the range over which to impose a low-shear region, rather than the 0.5 m value that we used. An associated uncertainty arises in the calculated growth rates before 1600 LT ( Fig. 7c ). Indeed, it is plausible that the tripling in isopycnal depth variability between

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Sebastian Essink, Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Amala Mahadevan

multitude of processes that reign the same spatiotemporal band. A careful characterization is thus needed to discern them among inertial oscillations, tides, Langmuir turbulence, and the mesoscale circulation. The Bay of Bengal, the location of this study ( Fig. 1 ), hosts energetic submesoscale dynamics, which are evident in observations (e.g., Ramachandran et al. 2018 ) and in numerical simulations (e.g., Sarkar et al. 2016 ). These likely occur at freshwater-dominated density fronts, which are

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