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Kerry Emanuel

; Lin et al. 2005 ; L. Wu et al. 2005 ; Morey et al. 2006 ; Sanford et al. 2007 ; Wu et al. 2007 ; Yablonsky and Ginis 2009 ; Blair et al. 2017 ) studies have further illuminated the nature of tropical cyclone interactions and feedbacks; these are nicely summarized in a review by Ginis (2002) . Among the topics of recent interest are the idea that Langmuir circulations may play a role in mixed layer entrainment ( Blair et al. 2017 ) and the effect of barrier layers (freshwater pools at the

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Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus Petters, and Ulrike Lohmann

. Fig . 11-24. The probability density function of radar reflectivity (% dB Z ) as a function of in-cloud optical depth obtained from (a)–(c) A-Train satellite observations and (d)–(f) the HadGEM2 general circulation model, as classified according to the cloud-top effective particle radius into (left) 5–10, (center) 10–15, and (right) 15–20 μ m. The slope of the relationship is indicative of whether drizzle formation is occurring, as described in Suzuki et al. (2105). [Figure and caption adapted

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Robert M. Rauber, Bruce Carmichael, Jason C. Knievel, and James L. Cogan

unconventional tactics. Rebellions and terrorism are examples.) Concern over airborne gases and particles from natural, accidental, or malicious sources motivated field campaigns such as URBAN 2000 ( Allwine et al. 2002 ), Joint Urban 2003 ( Allwine and Flaherty 2006 ), MID05 ( Allwine and Flaherty 2007 ), and Pentagon Shield ( Warner et al. 2007 ), all of which focused on understanding and improving modeling and validation of transport and dispersion (T&D) by microscale circulations in urban settings. The

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