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Øyvind Breivik, Ana Carrasco, Joanna Staneva, Arno Behrens, Alvaro Semedo, Jean-Raymond Bidlot, and Ole Johan Aarnes

-ocean circulation through generation of Langmuir turbulence (e.g., Belcher et al. 2012 ; D’Asaro et al. 2014 ; Fan and Griffies 2014 ; Li et al. 2016 , 2017 ) as well as the Coriolis–Stokes forcing (e.g., Breivik et al. 2015 ; Suzuki and Fox-Kemper 2016 ; Alari et al. 2016 ; Staneva et al. 2017 ). How changes to the wave climate will alter the Stokes drift and the associated depth-integrated Stokes transport in the future is thus of practical and scientific interest. The Stokes drift profile can be

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Yalin Fan and Stephen M. Griffies

-profile parameterization ( Large et al. 1994 ) and three variations using the alternative mixing parameterizations. a. Langmuir turbulence parameterization The dynamical origin of Langmuir circulation is understood as wind-driven shear instability in combination with surface wave influences related to their mean Lagrangian motion, called Stokes drift. The prevailing theoretical interpretation of Langmuir cells is derived by Craik and Leibovich (1976) , where they introduced the effect of waves on

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Anna-Lena Deppenmeier, Rein J. Haarsma, Chiel van Heerwaarden, and Wilco Hazeleger

appearance on the right-hand side: production by wind input at the surface, Langmuir cell contributions, production by shear, destruction by stratification, vertical diffusion, Kolmogorov dissipation, and internal and surface wave breaking. In Eq. (14) , C WI is a parameter for the wind input, | τ | is the wind stress, ω LC is the Langmuir circulation velocity, and H LC is the depth of the Langmuir cell. The Langmuir circulation strength is calculated according to (15) w LC = C LC u s sin ⁡ ( π

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Yalin Fan, W. Erick Rogers, and Tommy G. Jensen

developed for ocean mixing schemes to incorporate effects from surface ocean waves. A Langmuir turbulence parameterization was proposed by McWilliams and Sullivan (2000) and later improved by Smyth et al. (2002) for large circulation models. It gives apparent improvements to mixed layer dynamics in the fully coupled Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global climate model in the mid- and high-latitude regions, while no improvements are found in the equatorial region ( Fan and Griffies 2014

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Xianjin Li, Yi Chao, James C. McWilliams, and Lee-Lueng Fu

costly for climate studies. These turbulence closure schemes attempt to parameterize small-scale motions with local prognostic variables in the model such as turbulence length scales, which are small in comparison to the boundary layer. Gnanadesikan and Weller (1995) and McWilliams et al. (1997) have argued that such schemes are unstable to large eddies, such as those in the Langmuir circulation. Meanwhile, the lack of explicit nonlocal turbulence transport in these turbulence closure schemes

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Yalin Fan, Shian-Jiann Lin, Stephen M. Griffies, and Mark A. Hemer

.1029/2008GL037030 . Axell , L. B. , 2002 : Wind-driven internal waves and Langmuir circulation in a numerical ocean model of the southern Baltic Sea . J. Geophys. Res. , 107 , 3204 , doi:10.1029/2001JC000922 . Bidlot , J.-R. , 2001 : ECMWF wave model products. ECMWF Newsletter, No. 91, ECMWF, Reading, United Kingdom, 9–15 . Caires , S. , A. Sterl , J.-R. Bidlot , N. Graham , and V. Swail , 2004 : Intercomparison of different wind–wave reanalysis . J. Climate , 17 , 1893

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Swen Jullien, Sébastien Masson, Véra Oerder, Guillaume Samson, François Colas, and Lionel Renault

/4. Then finally, the eddy-killing effect can be approximated to (A15) τ diff ′ ≈ − 3 2   ρ a C d | U a | U o ′ . REFERENCES Axell , L. B. , 2002 : Wind-driven internal waves and Langmuir circulations in a numerical ocean model of the southern Baltic Sea . J. Geophys. Res. , 107 , 3204 , . 10.1029/2001JC000922 Barnier , B. , and Coauthors , 2006 : Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global ocean circulation model at eddy

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R. Kwok

along the continental slope after mixing with surrounding waters ( Foster and Carmack 1976 ; Gordon 1991 ) to form the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) of the deep ocean. Modeling studies ( Toggweiler and Samuels 1995 ; Goosse and Fichefet 1999 ) have highlighted the importance of brine rejection during the formation of sea ice on large-scale salinity and the role of the ice cover in the Southern Ocean circulation regime. At present, no consensus exists regarding the location and rates at which deep

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Ge Chen, Xuan Wang, and Chengcheng Qian

the top of the seasonal thermocline through the mixed water column. This process is considerably amplified by the turbulent forcing from winds and waves in terms of Langmuir circulation whose overall intensity follows a similar seasonal cycle. These effects combine to explain the time lag and peak temperature decline (corresponding to a delayed and weakened summer) with an increasing depth, resulting in the spiral structure of oceanic seasonality as revealed by Argo data ( Fig. 3 ). The angular

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Yalin Fan, Isaac M. Held, Shian-Jiann Lin, and Xiaolan L. Wang

, there are many other examples of the potential importance of changes in wind wave climate. As one example, since the ocean surface gravity wave field can penetrate far into an ice field, it can break up ice floes and accelerate ice melting during the summer, affecting estimates of the timing of the decay of the sea ice cover. One can also speculate about the importance of Langmuir circulations on ocean mixed-layer dynamics and heat and carbon uptake, especially in the Southern Ocean ( Cavaleri et al

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