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Kevin R. Haghi, Bart Geerts, Hristo G. Chipilski, Aaron Johnson, Samuel Degelia, David Imy, David B. Parsons, Rebecca D. Adams-Selin, David D. Turner, and Xuguang Wang

the elevated convective available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition for specific source layers within/above the SBL (e.g., Grasmick et al. 2018 ) requires accurate temperature and water vapor profile observations. AERIs are able to make reasonably accurate water vapor measurements in the lowest 1–2 km above the ground, but the information content decreases markedly above this level ( Turner and Löhnert 2014 ). Additional observations, such as those from a water vapor lidar, can be

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Bart Geerts, David Parsons, Conrad L. Ziegler, Tammy M. Weckwerth, Michael I. Biggerstaff, Richard D. Clark, Michael C. Coniglio, Belay B. Demoz, Richard A. Ferrare, William A. Gallus Jr., Kevin Haghi, John M. Hanesiak, Petra M. Klein, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen Kosiba, Greg M. McFarquhar, James A. Moore, Amin R. Nehrir, Matthew D. Parker, James O. Pinto, Robert M. Rauber, Russ S. Schumacher, David D. Turner, Qing Wang, Xuguang Wang, Zhien Wang, and Joshua Wurman

, 406 – 419 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1975)103<0406:DVIPAT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1975)103<0406:DVIPAT>2.0.CO;2 Wang , Z. , and Coauthors , 2011 : Observations of boundary layer water vapor and aerosol structures with a compact airborne Raman lidar. Fifth Symp. on Lidar Atmospheric Applications , Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 3.6. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/91Annual/webprogram/Paper187254.html .] Weckwerth , and Coauthors , 2004 : An overview of the

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Tammy M. Weckwerth, John Hanesiak, James W. Wilson, Stanley B. Trier, Samuel K. Degelia, William A. Gallus Jr., Rita D. Roberts, and Xuguang Wang

) suggested that an optimal combination of observations and assimilation of thermodynamic profiles is necessary for improved understanding of the planetary boundary layer. Developments of a small network of advanced differential absorption lidars (DIALs) to measure water vapor (e.g., Spuler et al. 2015 ; Weckwerth et al. 2016 ), calibrated aerosol ( Hayman and Spuler 2017 ) and temperature profiles ( Bunn et al. 2018 ) and the proposed Lower Troposphere Observing System (LOTOS) may aid in providing

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