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Mario Adani, Srdjan Dobricic, and Nadia Pinardi

observational datasets may be scarcer at regional levels, and higher-resolution models are required to represent the dynamics correctly ( Douglass et al. 2009 ). The advent of operational oceanography ( Pinardi and Woods 2002 ) and the setup of real-time monitoring systems now allows high-resolution regional ocean reanalyses with a relevant number of observations and calibrated models to be carried out for the first time. In this paper we will describe the first ocean reanalysis for the Mediterranean Sea

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Ana B. Ruescas, Manuel Arbelo, Jose A. Sobrino, and Cristian Mattar

( Castro et al. 2004 ; Legrand et al. 1994 ). The unique contribution of this work is to identify and evaluate the bias in satellite SST retrievals caused mainly by large quantities of absorbing atmospheric aerosols in the Mediterranean Sea. This paper also provides some explanations for anomalies observed in these biases. To this end, the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) High Resolution SST Pilot Project (GHRSST) Match-up Database of collocated satellite and in situ SSTs are used

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Briac Le Vu, Alexandre Stegner, and Thomas Arsouze

-lived Agulhas Rings control the global transport in the Southern Ocean ( Dencausse et al. 2010 ; Laxenaire et al. 2017, manuscript submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. ). In the Mediterranean Sea, the mean cyclonic pathways of the Algerian eddies ( Escudier et al. 2016 ) have an impact on the regional transport of Atlantic water and Levantine Intermediate Water in the Algerian Basin. Additionally, mesoscale eddies can have a profound influence on biological productivity and on the upper-ocean ecology and

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Hans van Haren, Roel Bakker, Yvo Witte, Martin Laan, and Johan van Heerwaarden

), in French territorial waters of the western Mediterranean Sea. The telescopes use highly sensitive optical instrumentation attached to multiple mooring lines so that they also sample a volume of seawater, like 3D-T. The technique of deployment of the self-unrolling telescope lines bears many similarities with that of 3D-T, although the 30-kN mooring lines including anchor weights are lowered via a ship winch to the seafloor one by one. Results from the complimentary optical and temperature

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David Antoine, André Morel, Edouard Leymarie, Amel Houyou, Bernard Gentili, Stéphane Victori, Jean-Pierre Buis, Nicolas Buis, Sylvain Meunier, Marius Canini, Didier Crozel, Bertrand Fougnie, and Patrice Henry

radiance distribution. The progressive modification of L (Ξ) with increasing depth was described and the trend toward a diffuse light regime (or “asymptotic radiance” distribution) was corroborated by these early measurements. A set of L (Ξ) measurements was collected in the Mediterranean Sea in 1971 by Norwegian oceanographers aboard the R/V Helland-Hansen . These data have been recently reanalyzed by Aas and Højerslev (1999) and Adams et al. (2002) , who also give a historical account of

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F. Raffa, G. Ludeno, B. Patti, F. Soldovieri, S. Mazzola, and F. Serafino

water usually present on the sea surface, the upwelling phenomenon has a significant impact on the marine environment because is able to boost both the primary and fish production in coastal Mediterranean areas generally characterized by highly oligotrophic conditions ( Agostini and Bakun 2002 ; García Lafuente et al. 2002 ; Patti et al. 2004 , 2008 , 2010 ). This paper is focused on the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily, where often a lower surface water temperature regime along the coast

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Pierre-Marie Poulain and Riccardo Gerin

/tidal motions, including the mapping of the mean ocean circulation and seasonal/mesoscale variability ( Maximenko et al. 2013 ; Lumpkin and Johnson 2013 ) and the study of surface tidal currents ( Poulain 2013 ; Poulain and Centurioni 2015 ; Poulain et al. 2018 ). Drifter programs in coastal environments and in marginal seas have also been conducted in various regions, such as the Gulf of Mexico ( Ohlmann and Niiler 2005 ) and the Mediterranean Sea ( Poulain et al. 2012 , 2013 ). In addition, surface

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Giuseppe M. R. Manzella and Marco Gambetta

defined as a unimodal distribution. However, analyzing the data, it has been observed that multimodal data distributions do exist in different areas and depths (see sections 4 and 7 for further discussion). This could be due to the influence of different dynamic characteristics of the sea. For example, changes in thermohaline circulation of the eastern Mediterranean were observed during the mid-1990s ( Klein et al. 1999 ). Former conditions were restored at the end of the decade. The “signature

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Gérard Caudal, Danièle Hauser, René Valentin, and Christophe Le Gac

campaigns carried out for two meteo-oceanographic programs. The first one is the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX; see Drobinski et al. 2014 ) in the northern part of Mediterranean Sea, while the second one is the Prévision Océanique, Turbidité, Ecoulements, Vagues et Sédimentologie (PROTEVS) project devoted to observation and modeling of currents, waves, and storm surge with a campaign in the Iroise Sea close to the Brittany coasts of France. HyMeX is an international

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Ge Chen, Bertrand Chapron, Robert Ezraty, and Douglas Vandemark

the China Seas), the northwest Atlantic, the Southern Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Unlike swell, wind wave is directly related to local wind: the persistent westerlies in the Southern Hemisphere are responsible for the circumpolar wind sea belt in the Southern Ocean, while the extensive northwest gales from the main continents at midlatitudes during the winter half of the year are the primary cause of the seasonal wind wave generation in the Northern Hemisphere. As an example, strong winds

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