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Xiang Ni, Chuntao Liu, Daniel J. Cecil, and Qinghong Zhang

, several hail PFs are located in the Mediterranean Sea. Vulpiani et al. (2015) discussed a winter convective storm with reported hail in the Mediterranean Sea, with a freezing-level height slightly above 2 km. Detailed seasonal hail maps that are based on DPR profiles also found that the central months of hail occurrence in parts of the Mediterranean area are in winter ( Mroz et al. 2017 ). The physical processes in these hail-bearing winter storms would be an interesting topic to investigate in the

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M. Petracca, L. P. D’Adderio, F. Porcù, G. Vulpiani, S. Sebastianelli, and S. Puca

to define potentialities and limitations in the use of GPM-DPR products as reference for the validation of the H SAF precipitation products over the MSG full disk. Italy is an ideal test bed for complex terrain in a Mediterranean climatic regime, as it consists of a mixture of mountainous terrain (Alps, Apennines) and flatter/coastal areas. The country is well instrumented by a network of 22 weather radars ( Vulpiani et al. 2014 ; Rinollo et al. 2013 ), as well as a network of around 3000 rain

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Toshio Iguchi, Nozomi Kawamoto, and Riko Oki

) in the figure. Figure 3b shows the estimated attenuation-corrected radar reflectivity factor ( ) at 2 km above sea level given by KuPR’s standard product (orbit number: 10725, scan: around 2935, time: 0001:56, 18 January 2016 UTC). It shows that the storm is widespread and distributes rather uniformly. There are about 100 stations in the Japan Meteorological Agency's (JMA) Automatic Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) within the area shown in this figure. Almost all of them recorded

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Lijing Cheng, Hao Luo, Timothy Boyer, Rebecca Cowley, John Abraham, Viktor Gouretski, Franco Reseghetti, and Jiang Zhu

/T7/DB are the same and that the fall rate equation has the same coefficients for these four XBT types, but this does not exactly hold, based on experimental results and independent studies (i.e., Green 1984 ; Hallock and Teague 1992 ; Hanawa et al. 1995 ; Reseghetti et al. 2007 ; Cowley et al. 2013 ). To group the profiles with unknown probe types, it is better to consider the maximum (max) depth each probe type can reach. Based on the tests mainly in Mediterranean Sea, the maximum depth

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Walter A. Petersen, Wesley Berg, Chris Kidd, Erich F. Stocker, Dalia B. Kirschbaum, Ramesh Kakar, Scott A. Braun, George J. Huffman, Toshio Iguchi, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, Robert Meneghini, Riko Oki, William S. Olson, Yukari N. Takayabu, Kinji Furukawa, and Thomas Wilheit

South Pacific frontal system from GMI, (h) a South Atlantic frontal system from GMI, (i) a line of convection in Africa in 3D from the DPR, Sumatra land–sea convection during the (j) day and (k) night from GMI, and (l) an Australian weather system from GMI. A founding concept of the GPM mission is the constellation of precipitation observations provided by national and international satellite partners of opportunity. International and national partnerships are formed independently by both NASA and

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Kamil Mroz, Alessandro Battaglia, Timothy J. Lang, Simone Tanelli, and Gian Franco Sacco

captured on 30 December 1997 in northern Argentina ( Zipser et al. 2006 ). Within its extent, an astonishing brightness temperature of 69 K at 37 GHz was measured. Moreover, even a lower-frequency channel (19 GHz) bore the hallmarks of scattering because of large hailstones (a brightness temperature below 150 K). During the GPM era, another exceptionally intense hailstorm was observed over the Mediterranean Sea. It was characterized by brightness temperatures of 89 and 159 K at 36.5- and 19-GHz

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Md. Abul Ehsan Bhuiyan, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, and Emmanouil N. Anagnostou

September ( Cattani et al. 2016 , 2018 ). The study area in Peru has 323 rain gauges and elevations range from sea level to 5020 m MSL. Area average annual precipitation is 713 mm and maximum area average daily precipitation is 540 mm. The semiarid Pacific coastline experiences less than 100 mm precipitation per year due to the cold von Humboldt Current ( Manz et al. 2016 ). Precipitation increases toward the Andes driven by strong topographic gradients ( Espinoza et al. 2015 ; Espinoza Villar et al

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Xiang Ni, Chuntao Liu, and Edward Zipser

central Africa, which is consistent with the larger hail sizes with stronger ice scattering signal at 37-GHz microwave radiance in the subtropics ( Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ; Ni et al. 2017 ). Though only a few DCC cases are found north of the Mediterranean Sea, they have high DFR values. It is interesting to see high DFR values at 12 km over northeast China, which is close to the hot spot of convection overshooting the tropopause over the region ( Liu and Liu 2018 ). To further test if DFR values

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