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M. Issa Lélé, Lance M. Leslie, and Peter J. Lamb

study identifies the Mediterranean Sea, central Africa, and the Gulf of Guinea as sources of low-level moisture for the WAM region. The authors also noted the importance of the meridional and zonal moisture fluxes for interannual rainfall variability, with the zonal moisture flux being most important for the Sahelian region. Couvreux et al. (2010) used observations and the ECMWF dataset to underscore the variability of the northward excursions of the moisture flux at a 3–5-day time scale

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Kerry H. Cook and Edward K. Vizy

of interannual variability are similarly complex and display pronounced regional variations. Diro et al. (2011) divided Ethiopia into 6 regions to identify teleconnections with sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) and found that each region displayed different teleconnections. The annual cycle of rainfall is the dominant mode of variation, but influences on interannual time scales are significant with, for example, summer drying in central and northern Ethiopia during warm ENSO events

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Thomas Engel, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Gregor Pante, and Jan Bliefernicht

TRMM radar data (e.g., Gosset et al. 2013 ; Pfeifroth et al. 2016 ). The period used in the present study is 1983–2014. 3. Methods a. Analysis of atmospheric dynamics Both Ouagadougou and Dakar are located in the Sahel, a region stretching between about 12° and 18°N from the Atlantic coast to the Red Sea (see Fig. 1a ). This area is characterized by the transition from the arid conditions of the Sahara with less than 200 mm rainfall per year to a more humid climate equatorward. The West African

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