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Fiaz Ahmed and J. David Neelin

Maloney 2011 ) to even interannual ( Neale et al. 2008 ). Agreement between convective transition statistics in models and observations is also sensitive to the assumed entrainment—a fact used to constrain its vertical profile and magnitudes in GCMs ( Sahany et al. 2012 ; Kuo et al. 2017 ). Observational studies of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs; Houze 2004 ) provide another plausible pathway to constraining entrainment profiles, particularly with respect to deep, organized convection

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Yi-Hung Kuo, Kathleen A. Schiro, and J. David Neelin

-term forecasting purposes, since models adopted for weather forecasting or reanalysis share common components with climate models. Many conventional diagnostics for climate models emphasize comparisons against long-term climatology or variability at different time scales, and the model performance examined by these metrics is affected by multiple factors. While sensitivity experiments with respect to such metrics are useful in identifying important processes ( Benedict et al. 2013 , 2014 ; Boyle et al. 2015

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