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John A. Knox, Donald W. McCann, and Paul D. Williams

results”. J. Atmos. Sci. , 59 , 2874 – 2877 . Schwartz , B. , 1996 : The quantitative use of PIREPs in developing aviation weather guidance products. Wea. Forecasting , 11 , 372 – 384 . Shapiro , M. A. , 1978 : Further evidence of the mesoscale and turbulent structure of upper level jet stream–frontal zone systems. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 106 , 1100 – 1111 . Sharman , R. , C. Tebaldi , G. Wiener , and J. Wolff , 2006 : An integrated approach to mid- and upper-level turbulence

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Yonghui Lin and Fuqing Zhang

-gravity waves observed in the lower stratosphere over Macquarie Island. J. Atmos. Sci. , 57 , 737 – 752 . Holton , J. R. , and M. J. Alexander , 2000 : The role of waves in the transport circulation of the middle atmosphere. Atmospheric Science across the Stratopause, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 130, Amer. Geophys. Union, 21–35 . Hooke , W. H. , 1986 : Gravity waves. Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting, P. S. Ray, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 272–288 . Houghton , J. T. , 1978 : The

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Dong L. Wu and Stephen D. Eckermann

-correlated at 45-km altitude in August 2006 with small-scale GW-induced temperature oscillations explicitly resolved in high-resolution global analysis fields issued by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS). Section 6 summarizes major results from this study and briefly discusses areas for future work. 2. The MLS Experiment on Aura The Aura MLS scans the atmospheric limb continuously. Each scan, also called a major frame (MAF), takes 24.7 s

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David A. Schecter

1. Introduction a. Vortex instability driven by inertia–gravity wave emission Mesoscale vortices are among the most intriguing coherent structures in the troposphere. Figure 1 illustrates their many forms, which range from hurricanes to rotational thunderstorms. The angular velocity Ω of a mesoscale vortex typically satisfies the condition in which f is the Coriolis parameter and N is the ambient Brunt–Väisälä frequency. This condition allows vortex-scale disturbances to resonate with

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Michael E. McIntyre

quick review of the essentials can be found in McIntyre (2008) , and a thorough and comprehensive development of the theory, including mathematical demonstrations that it has to take the generic form it does, can be found in Mohebalhojeh and McIntyre (2007a) . Like their predecessors, going back to Hinkelmann’s forecast initialization work of the 1950s, these highly accurate inversion operators depend on computing diagnostic estimates of time derivatives ∂ n /∂ t n of the flow fields. So if a

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