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Susan Stillman, Xubin Zeng, and Michael G. Bosilovich

performed better in humid regions than in arid regions and overestimated light rainfall while underestimating moderate and heavy rainfall. Reanalyses combine model forecast with observations to provide globally continuous fields of the analyzed observations and other variables derived from the background model. While observationally driven, their ability to estimate physical processes, such as precipitation, depends on many factors, including observational coverage and model performance, and is

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Thomas Engel, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Gregor Pante, and Jan Bliefernicht

precipitation rates with 0.25° × 0.25° latitude–longitude resolution obtained from the combination of the three TRMM sensors mentioned above as well as microwave and infrared sensors aboard other satellites. The satellite-derived 3-hourly precipitation estimates are bias corrected with monthly surface observations from gauge stations. After more than 17 years, TRMM went out of operation in April 2015. In this study, the latest version 3B42 V7 is used for the period 1998–2014. Several studies have confirmed

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Rosalind Cornforth, Douglas J. Parker, Mariane Diop-Kane, Andreas H. Fink, Jean-Philippe Lafore, Arlene Laing, Ernest Afiesimama, Jim Caughey, Aida Diongue-Niang, Abdou Kassimou, Peter Lamb, Benjamin Lamptey, Zilore Mumba, Ifeanyi Nnodu, Jerome Omotosho, Steve Palmer, Patrick Parrish, Leon-Guy Razafindrakoto, Wassila Thiaw, Chris Thorncroft, and Adrian Tompkins

describe pragmatic approaches to forecasting, including, for example, the plotting of synoptic charts from regional observations and the computation of stability indices from upper-air data. Working together, forecasters and researchers have generated canonical figures for typical synoptic situations, thereby translating the science to specific forecasting tools. The case studies help to close the gap between research and user applications through relevant examples (see Table 1 ), and with this in

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Gang Zhang, Kerry H. Cook, and Edward K. Vizy

and the life cycle of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; Huffman et al. 2007 ) satellite observations have enabled a number of studies of the diurnal cycle over West Africa. Nesbitt and Zipser (2003) examined TRMM Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager data for 1998–2001 and suggest that, over tropical land, rainfall associated with MCSs has a late evening peak while the intensity of MCSs is greatest in the late afternoon. The peak in non

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