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Ulrich Löhnert, S. Crewell, O. Krasnov, E. O’Connor, and H. Russchenberg

retrieval of humidity profiles by adding elevation scanning in band A from ground-based MWP. Microwave radiometer observations during LAUNCH were taken at Falkenberg starting 0900 UTC 8 September 2005 and ending 0700 UTC 1 November 2005. Unfortunately, on 1800 UTC 17 September 2005 the GPS clock failed, which led to an omission of relative calibrations until this was corrected for 1200 UTC 17 October 2005. Because the data in this time interval are of poor quality, they are ignored in the following

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Matthias Grzeschik, Hans-Stefan Bauer, Volker Wulfmeyer, Dirk Engelbart, Ulla Wandinger, Ina Mattis, Dietrich Althausen, Ronny Engelmann, Matthias Tesche, and Andrea Riede

, it is critical to study the impact of new water vapor observations on the quality of mesoscale forecasts. Taking into account the large spatial/temporal variability of water vapor, observation systems are required, which provide 2D or even 3D distributions of water vapor. This is only possible with advanced remote sensing systems such as passive IR or microwave sensors or active sensors such as the global positioning system (GPS) tomography ( Flores et al. 2000 ; MacDonald et al. 2002 ) or

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Edwin F. Campos, Wayne Hocking, and Frédéric Fabry

observations at Adelaide, Australia (35°S, 138°E) by Hocking and Vincent (1982 ; Fig. 5 ). In both cases, the spurious signals are due to scatter received through the antenna sidelobes. The third profile, also plotted in Fig. 5 as a thin dashed line, corresponds to a synthetic step function, which has a magnitude of 50 dB Z from the ground to a 4-km height, and 0 dB Z aloft. This profile is similar to the backscatter signal from a summer rain shower as observed by microwave (centimeter wavelength

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Daniela Nowak, Dominique Ruffieux, Judith L. Agnew, and Laurent Vuilleumier

well as microwave radiometers profiling temperature and humidity, and other instruments. The ceilometer and cloud radar were used in combination for the detection of fog and stratiform low clouds, and for determining their lower and upper boundaries. To estimate the detection efficiency, human eye observations were used as a reference. The determination of the upper boundary by the cloud radar was compared with a determination using radiosounding humidity profiles according to Wang et al. (1999

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Thierry Leblanc, I. Stuart McDermid, and Robin A. Aspey

-Wave Spectrometer (WVMS) instrument operated by the Naval Research Laboratory ( Nedoluha et al. 1995 ) is plotted against the day of the year. Though the microwave-retrieved total column water vapor dataset remains provisional and nonvalidated (G. E. Nedoluha 2006, personal communication), all three independent datasets reveal that July, and to a lesser extent August, are clearly the wettest months of the year, which mimics the well-known seasonal cycle of tropospheric water vapor at midlatitudes. Though most

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