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Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, David Mocko, Rolf Reichle, Yuqiong Liu, Kristi R. Arsenault, Youlong Xia, Michael Ek, George Riggs, Ben Livneh, and Michael Cosh

of soil moisture and snow observations into land surface models and that have demonstrated that model-simulated soil moisture can be improved through the assimilation of passive microwave soil moisture retrievals (e.g., Margulis et al. 2002 ; Reichle et al. 2007 ; Q. Liu et al. 2011 ; Draper et al. 2012 ; Nagarajan et al. 2012 ; Hain et al. 2012 ). These studies demonstrate improvements not only in near-surface soil moisture fields, but also in fields that are connected to the observations

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Hongshuo Wang, Jeffrey C. Rogers, and Darla K. Munroe

moisture observations. What is more, the soil moisture retrieved from climate models has very large uncertainties in showing trend and variability ( Li et al. 2007 ). As an alternative, microwave remote sensing can retrieve soil moisture, but it can only sense the surface soil depth, usually within 0–5 cm ( Owe et al. 2001 ; Dorigo et al. 2010 ), and estimation in highly vegetated regions is uncertain or missing ( Jackson 1997 ; Wagner et al. 1999 ). Commonly used drought indices from climatic data

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Jiarui Dong, Mike Ek, Dorothy Hall, Christa Peters-Lidard, Brian Cosgrove, Jeff Miller, George Riggs, and Youlong Xia

from mountain snowmelt ( Stewart et al. 2005 ). In many midlatitude, high-elevation regions, the snowpack delays runoff and thus provides much-needed water in the spring and summer, which can mitigate agricultural droughts through irrigation when water is needed most. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal variations of critical processes like snowmelt and runoff in these mountainous areas. As both the model predictions and passive microwave snow water equivalent (SWE) observations

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Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, Jason Otkin, Xiwu Zhan, Kingtse Mo, Mark Svoboda, Brian Wardlow, and Agustin Pimstein

. , 116 , D15107 , doi:10.1029/2011JD015633 . Hain, C. R. , Crow W. T. , Anderson M. C. , and Mecikalski J. R. , 2012 : An ensemble Kalman filter dual assimilation of thermal infrared and microwave satellite observations of soil moisture into the Noah land surface model . Water Resour. Res. , 48 , W11517 , doi:10.1029/2011WR011268 . Hayes, M. , Svoboda M. , Wall N. , and Widhalm M. , 2011 : The Lincoln Declaration on drought indices: Universal meteorological drought index

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