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Eric S. Blake and Todd B. Kimberlain

classifications ( Herndon and Velden 2004 ). Ships and buoys occasionally provide important in situ observations. For systems posing a threat to land, direct measurements from reconnaissance aircraft are often available, from both flight-level winds and stepped-frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) data ( Uhlhorn et al. 2007 ). The 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron of the U.S. Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) flew four reconnaissance missions into eastern North Pacific tropical cyclones, and NOAA

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John L. Beven II and Eric S. Blake

reported at McNabs Island and Beaver Island, and 55 kt at Osbourne Head. Applying a 1.11 adjustment ( Harper et al. 2009 ) to these values yields a maximum 1-min surface wind of 61–62 kt. Although aircraft data only supported an intensity of about 60 kt 12 h earlier, the increase in organization observed in microwave imagery after that time suggested strengthening before landfall. Based on the adjusted observations from McNabs Island and Beaver Island, the increased organization, and the assumption

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Lixion A. Avila and Stacy R. Stewart

individual cyclone summaries in this paper are based on poststorm meteorological analyses by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) using in situ and remotely sensed data from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites, aircraft reconnaissance, weather radars, ships, buoys, and conventional land-based surface and upper-air observations. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and Meteorological Satellite-9 ( Meteosat-9 ) serve

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