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Eric S. Blake and Richard J. Pasch

NHC Tropical Cyclone Reports (available online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastall.shtml ). These reports contain storm information omitted here because of space limitations, including additional surface observations and a forecast and warning critique.] Observations of eastern North Pacific tropical cyclones are almost exclusively obtained by satellite, with the primary platform being the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites

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Stacy R. Stewart and John P. Cangialosi

Observations of eastern North Pacific tropical cyclones are almost exclusively obtained from satellites, with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) serving as the primary platform. GOES-East and GOES-West provide the visible and infrared imagery that serves as input for intensity estimates based on the Dvorak classification technique ( Dvorak 1984 ; Velden et al. 2006 ). Subjective Dvorak intensity estimates utilized by NHC are

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James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven II, Miles B. Lawrence, Stacy R. Stewart, and Eric S. Blake

dropwindsondes ( Hock and Franklin 1999 ), but more frequently are estimated from flight-level winds using empirical relationships derived from a 3-yr sample of GPS dropwindsonde data ( Franklin et al. 2003 ). During NOAA reconnaissance missions, surface winds can be estimated remotely using the Stepped-Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) instrument ( Uhlhorn and Black 2003 ). When available, satellite and reconnaissance data are supplemented by conventional land-based surface and upper-air observations

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John L. Beven II, Lixion A. Avila, James L. Franklin, Miles B. Lawrence, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

basin at least since 1966 when reliable satellite observations began. Five cyclones made landfall on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Ignacio and Marty made landfall as hurricanes over the Baja California peninsula, causing 14 deaths. Carlos and Olaf came ashore as tropical storms in mainland Mexico, while Nora made landfall as a tropical depression in mainland Mexico. Jimena, which formed in the eastern North Pacific basin, threatened portions of the Hawaiian Islands. As seen in past seasons, tropical

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Robert J. Berg and Lixion A. Avila

States. All the fatalities resulted from dangerous marine conditions, and some occurred when the storms were located well offshore. 2. Individual storm summaries The individual cyclone summaries below are based on poststorm meteorological analyses by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) using in situ and remotely sensed data from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites, aircraft reconnaissance, weather radars, ships, buoys, and conventional land-based surface and upper-air observations. In

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Eric S. Blake and Todd B. Kimberlain

classifications ( Herndon and Velden 2004 ). Ships and buoys occasionally provide important in situ observations. For systems posing a threat to land, direct measurements from reconnaissance aircraft are often available, from both flight-level winds and stepped-frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) data ( Uhlhorn et al. 2007 ). The 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron of the U.S. Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) flew four reconnaissance missions into eastern North Pacific tropical cyclones, and NOAA

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Lixion A. Avila, Richard J. Pasch, John L. Beven II, James L. Franklin, Miles B. Lawrence, and Stacy R. Stewart

May. The low moved little and dissipated by 0000 UTC 26 May. Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) images of Agatha from around 1400 UTC 22 May through 0230 UTC 23 May revealed a ring of precipitation resembling an eyewall. One of these images is shown in Fig. 5 . The presence of the convective ring suggests that Agatha’s peak intensity was probably higher than indicated by the 35–45-kt winds suggested by the Dvorak estimates, although no technique

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Miles B. Lawrence, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven, James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

northward, the low produced sporadic bursts of central convection. After turning northwestward, the low looped back toward the southeast on 20 April. The central convection became better organized and the low separated from the frontal system. It is estimated the low became Subtropical Storm Ana at 0600 UTC 20 April about 215 n mi west of Bermuda. Based on satellite microwave data showing a warm core, it is estimated that Ana became a tropical storm near 0000 UTC 21 April with winds of 50 kt (1 kt = 0

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Michael J. Brennan, Richard D. Knabb, Michelle Mainelli, and Todd B. Kimberlain

geostationary and low-earth orbiting satellites, aircraft reconnaissance, weather radar, buoys, and conventional land-based surface and upper-air observations ( Dvorak 1984 ; Hebert and Poteat 1975 ; Hawkins et al. 2001 ; Brueske and Velden 2003 ; Demuth et al. 2006 ; Brennan et al. 2009 ). In 2007, during all NOAA WP-3D aircraft missions and a subset of the U.S. Air Force Reserve C-130 aircraft flights, surface winds were remotely estimated using the Stepped-Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR

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Daniel P. Brown, John L. Beven, James L. Franklin, and Eric S. Blake

for the season’s tropical storms and hurricanes are given in Fig. 1 and Table 1 , respectively. (Tabulations of the 6-hourly best-track positions and intensities can be found in the NHC tropical cyclone reports, available online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastall.shtml . These reports contain storm information omitted here because of space limitations, including additional surface observations and a forecast and warning critique.) In the cyclone summaries below, U.S. property damage estimates

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