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Peter N. Blossey, Christopher S. Bretherton, and Johannes Mohrmann

studies across the subtropical oceans that include significant observational constraints, building on the approach in Sandu et al. (2010) . In particular, observations of top of the atmosphere longwave and shortwave radiative fluxes provide a significant test of the simulations, providing information about boundary layer depth, cloud cover and cloud thickness. Further data products, including microwave satellite observations of total water path and cloud water path also provide rich information about

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Bradley W. Klotz and David S. Nolan

assimilation systems (i.e., Aksoy et al. 2012 , 2013 ) are designed to incorporate various observations from satellite-, aircraft-, ocean-, and land-based instruments, often evaluating the effects on the predicted TC track, intensity, three-dimensional structure, and surrounding environment by including or omitting certain observations ( Aberson et al. 2015 ; Christophersen et al. 2017 ). Assimilation and prediction systems rely heavily on airborne and satellite data, and sophisticated satellite

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Patrik Benáček and Máté Mile

:// . 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00112.1 Saunders , R. , M. Matricardi , and P. Brunel , 1999 : An improved fast radiative transfer model for assimilation of satellite radiance observations . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 125 , 1407 – 1425 , . 10.1002/qj.1999.49712555615 Schwartz , C. S. , Z. Liu , Y. Chen , and X.-Y. Huang , 2012 : Impact of assimilating microwave radiances with a limited-area ensemble data

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Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Andrew Gettelman, Charles G. Bardeen, Bruce A. Albrecht, and Paquita Zuidema

1. Introduction The climatological stratocumulus to cumulus (Sc–Cu) transition over the eastern subtropical oceans has been a long-standing test of our physical understanding and modeling skill. Through a combination of field and satellite observations and detailed process modeling such as large-eddy simulation (LES), the Sc–Cu transition has been explained as due to the deepening and warming of a cloud-topped marine boundary layer under a strong inversion as it advects toward warmer sea

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Johna E. Rudzin, Lynn K. Shay, and Benjamin Jaimes de la Cruz

estimations. Satellite SST is used due to the lack of in situ SST observations within the Caribbean Sea during the case studies. This specific product was chosen because it incorporates microwave sensors, which are needed to resolve SST variability in cloudy situations, and because of its high spatial resolution. In-storm SST (SSTin) and 1-day-prestorm SST (SSTpre) are used in this study. SST differences between airborne expendable bathythermographs (AXBTs) and collocated SSTin from GHRSST daily satellite

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