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Brandon W. Kerns and Shuyi S. Chen

destabilization phase in advance of the next MJO event. Recent work suggests that the triggering of an MJO event may be influenced by the extratropics ( Ray and Zhang 2010 ; Zhao et al. 2013 ; Ray and Li 2013 ). In the tropical IO, the characteristics of convection and wind associated with the MJO differ from the western Pacific. In the western Pacific, Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) provided the most detailed observations of the MJO. The

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Xiouhua Fu, Wanqiu Wang, June-Yi Lee, Bin Wang, Kazuyoshi Kikuchi, Jingwei Xu, Juan Li, and Scott Weaver

maintaining the MJO cycle. The assumption of mean easterly winds over Indo-western Pacific sector in their original framework, however, is at odds with the observations ( Wang 1988b ; Jones and Weare 1996 ) although follow-up studies suggest that nonlinear WISHE might play a certain role on MJO dynamics (e.g., Araligidad and Maloney 2008 ; Sobel et al. 2010 ). Utilizing daily SST and surface wind datasets collected during the First Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Global Experiment (FGGE

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Tomoe Nasuno, Tim Li, and Kazuyoshi Kikuchi

). The objective of this study is to gain insight into the mechanisms of the MJO convective initiation that occurred during the CINDY2011/DYNAMO IOP, with a particular emphasis on the moistening processes leading up to convective initiation. Rich data, including observations and model products for the IOP, allowed for an unprecedented range of materials for detailed analysis. A case study has the advantage of allowing the roles of high-frequency local-scale phenomena in the large-scale dynamics and

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