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Samuel K. Degelia, Xuguang Wang, and David J. Stensrud

event is improved compared to assimilating these observations using rawinsonde errors (not shown). Geer and Bauer (2011) and Minamide and Zhang (2017) use a similar approach to inflate observation error covariances for microwave imager radiances. This technique is only meant as a preliminary method for assimilating the AERI and Doppler lidar observations. In the future, we plan to further develop an optimal method for determining observation errors for these instruments. c. Design of the model

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Elizabeth N. Smith, Joshua G. Gebauer, Petra M. Klein, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Jeremy A. Gibbs

, and NLLJs. Primary data sources for NLLJ cases were the boundary layer profiles measured by mobile and fixed PECAN Integrated Sounding Arrays (PISAs). These datasets included profiles of dynamic and thermodynamic parameters obtained at high temporal and vertical resolution using Doppler lidars, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometers (AERIs), radar wind profilers, radiosondes, and microwave radiometers (MWRs), providing observations to describe the SBL and NLLJ evolution. There were four

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David M. Loveless, Timothy J. Wagner, David D. Turner, Steven A. Ackerman, and Wayne F. Feltz

bores will change their characteristics over the course of their lifetimes. Koch et al. (2008) used a combination of observations and numerical simulations to identify changes in the turbulent nature of the bore over the course of its life cycle. They identified that the majority of turbulent kinetic energy is generated by the shear stress from the strong along-bore flow associated with the low-level jet (LLJ). Additionally, they found that early in the life cycle of the bore, in what they called

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Coltin Grasmick, Bart Geerts, David D. Turner, Zhien Wang, and T. M. Weckwerth

develop in sequence and appear as an amplitude-ordered group of waves, referred to as a soliton (e.g., Knupp 2006 ). An unambiguous distinction of the passage of an outflow boundary as a density current, bore, or soliton from radar reflectivity maps and surface observations alone is difficult ( Haghi et al. 2017 ). A density current appears as a single radar “fine line,” while an undular bore usually reveals multiple parallel fine lines from additional regions of convergence along solitary waves. The

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