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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Daniel J. Cecil

Argentina. With time, this will be a promising avenue to explore hail within this region, but currently the data record is not extensive enough for a thorough analysis. Fig . 1. Southern South America with topography shaded and the study area outlined. As a result, the most comprehensive way to examine the climatology of hail in subtropical South America and compare these results to other parts of the world is to use passive microwave satellite observations of ice hydrometeors. These measurements have

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Russ S. Schumacher, Deanna A. Hence, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Martin Rugna, Adam C. Varble, and Nathan R. Kelly

1. Introduction Subtropical South America, and in particular the La Plata basin of Argentina, has been identified as a region with some of the most intense convective storms on the planet. In particular, observations from the TRMM satellite have shown that especially deep and wide convective systems occur in this region ( Zipser et al. 2006 ; Romatschke and Houze 2010 ; Liu and Zipser 2015 ; Houze et al. 2015 ), and these storms produce a very large proportion of the annual rainfall for this

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Jeremiah O. Piersante, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Russ S. Schumacher, Angela K. Rowe, and Lynn A. McMurdie

1. Introduction Thunderstorms maximize in frequency and intensity near large mountain ranges ( Zipser et al. 2006 ); however, ground-based observations are historically sparse in some of these locations around the world. Fortunately, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) has provided a robust dataset of subtropical storm characteristics. Resulting studies using TRMM PR have shown observational evidence that convective echoes east of the Andes Mountains in

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Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, James N. Marquis, Matthew R. Kumjian, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Maxwell A. Grover, Paul Robinson, and Deanna A. Hence

.5439/1482619 . 10.5439/1482619 Bang , S. D. , and D. J. Cecil , 2019 : Constructing a multifrequency passive microwave hail retrieval and climatology in the GPM domain . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 58 , 1889 – 1904 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-19-0042.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-19-0042.1 Blair , S. F. , and Coauthors , 2017 : High-resolution hail observations: Implications for NWS warning operations . Wea. Forecasting , 32 , 1101 – 1119 , https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-16-0203.1 . 10.1175/WAF-D-16

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Paola V. Salio

1. Introduction Satellite observations have revealed that some of the world’s most intense thunderstorms occur across subtropical South America and, more specifically, in northern and central Argentina (e.g., Zipser et al. 2006 ; Romatschke and Houze 2010 ; Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ; Houze et al. 2015 ). These thunderstorms typically develop near a secondary mountain range to the east of the Andes called the Sierras de Córdoba (SDC), and they have been associated with severe weather

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