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Zhiyong Meng and Fuqing Zhang

Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) radiance for a tropical cyclone event in comparison to 3DVar (see online at ). However, many issues remain to be explored in satellite radiance assimilation. For example, observation bias correction requires long-term stationary statistics of satellite observations over large areas, which is usually not available for mesoscale models. Additionally, mesoscale models usually do not have a high-enough model top, which may

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Peter Jan van Leeuwen

sea ice strength parameters during a 2-yr assimilation experiment in a finite-element model of the Arctic Ocean, both in space and time. Real sea ice concentration observations were used from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) satellite instrument together with sea ice drift observations from the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT). Only 32 particles were used to obtain results that converged when the localization area was made small enough and observation errors were large enough. A strong

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P. L. Houtekamer and Fuqing Zhang

[see Fig. 1.1 in Rodgers (2000) ]. Perhaps the best known is the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) instrument, which has about 10 channels that are mostly sensitive to temperature (AMSU-A) and 5 channels that are mostly sensitive to humidity (AMSU-B). A larger number of radiance observations, O (1000) per vertical profile, is available from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). In the context of variational assimilation systems

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Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

benefited operational centers. Beven (2012b) demonstrated that these improvements have contributed to increased skill of NHC forecasts of NATL ET timing and occurrence, although no attempt was made in their study to account for evolving ET classification practices. Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit temperature retrievals have been routinely used as CPS inputs to obtain analyses that complement those derived from numerical models, particularly at the NHC. Further, multispectral observations of moisture

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Robert Wood

; Nicholls and Leighton (1986) adapted a dry surface-driven boundary layer theory ( Wyngaard and Brost 1984 ) to estimate that entrainment might explain the reductions of around 20% from F ad seen in their observations. A more recent study Wood (2005a) finds evidence that substantial departures of F ad from unity appear to scale with the ratio of the time scales for moisture replenishment by turbulent fluxes to that for precipitation removal. Surface-based microwave radiometers also suggest that

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Kuo-Nan Liou

on the thermodynamics and dynamics of the atmosphere. In light of these reviews,suggestions are outlined for cirrus-radiation research activities aimed toward the development and improvementof weather and climate models for a physical understanding of cause and effect relationships and for predictionpurposes. CONTENTS1. Introduction2. A global view of cirrus from satellites3. Composition and structure of cirrus a. In situ observations b. Remote sensing 1) Active remote sensing 2

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

shown in idealized form in Fig. 2d is based on real examples. Simpson et al. (1997) and Ritchie et al. (2003) showed satellite imagery of MCSs rotating around the center of the developing Southern Hemisphere Tropical Storm Oliver (1993). Sippel et al. (2006) described a similar set of MCSs seen in both satellite imagery and coastal radar observations as the newly formed Tropical Storm Allison (2001) made landfall in Texas. The MCSs in Allison were distributed around the developing cyclone

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