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T. Duncan, A. Fairlie, Richard E. Turner, and David E. Siskind

OCTOBER 1994 FAIRLIE ET AL. 2363Transport Characteristics of a Finite-Difference Dynamics Model Combined with a Spectral Transport Model of the Middle Atmosphere T. DUNCAN A. FAIRLIEScience and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Virginia RICHARD E. TURNER AND DAVID E. SISKIND*NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia(Manuscript received 29 September 1993, in final form 28

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JACQUES DEROME and A. WIIN-NIELSEN

564.. __ - ... " - .~, .. ..MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW Vol. 99, No. 7UDC 161.616.8:161.~.2:161.~1.4.001.67THE RESPONSE OF A MIDDLE-LATITUDE MODEL ATMOSPHERE TO FORCINGBY TOPOGRAPHY AND STATIONARY HEAT SOURCES JACQUES DEROMEMeteorological Service of Canada, Montreal, QuebecA. WIIN-NIELSENDepartment of Meteorology and Oceanography, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.ABSTRACT The middle-latitude standing wave problem is investigated by means of a quasi-geostrophic, linear, steady

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Stephen D. Eckermann, Jun Ma, Karl W. Hoppel, David D. Kuhl, Douglas R. Allen, James A. Doyle, Kevin C. Viner, Benjamin C. Ruston, Nancy L. Baker, Steven D. Swadley, Timothy R. Whitcomb, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Liang Xu, N. Kaifler, B. Kaifler, Iain M. Reid, Damian J. Murphy, and Peter T. Love

Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE): An airborne and ground-based exploration of gravity wave propagation and effects from their sources throughout the lower and middle atmosphere . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 97 , 425 – 453 , https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00269.1 . 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00269.1 Fritts , D. C. , and Coauthors , 2018 : Large-amplitude mountain waves in the mesosphere accompanying weak cross-mountain flow during DEEPWAVE research flight RF22 . J. Geophys. Res. , in press . 10

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

tropospheric jet streams generate vertically propagating gravity waves in the troposphere and lower stratosphere ( Smith 1979 ; Gill 1982 ; Baines 1995 ; Fritts and Alexander 2003 ; Nappo 2012 ; Sutherland 2010 ; Plougonven and Zhang 2014 ). Through their far-field interactions, gravity waves constitute an important coupling mechanism in Earth’s atmosphere. The associated redistribution of momentum and energy controls the global middle-atmospheric circulation ( Dunkerton 1978 ; Lindzen 1981 ). To

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Fabienne Schmid, Elena Gagarina, Rupert Klein, and Ulrich Achatz

1. Introduction Inertia–gravity waves (IGWs) play a key role in weather and climate through their transfer of energy and momentum from the troposphere to the middle atmosphere (e.g., Holton et al. 1995 ; Fritts and Alexander 2003 ; Plougonven and Zhang 2014 , and references therein) that is again known to influence the troposphere on seasonal and longer time scales (e.g., Baldwin et al. 2001 ; Scaife et al. 2012 ; Kidston et al. 2015 ; Baldwin et al. 2021 ; Martin et al. 2021 ). Due to

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SIMULATED CLIMATOLOGY OF A GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL WITH A HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

III. Effects of Increased Horizontal Computational Resolution

SYUKURO MANABE, JOSEPH SMAGORINSKY, J. LEITH HOLLOWAY JR., and HUGH M. STONE

dissipation from thatof the source of eddy kinetic energy.The analysis of the energetics in wave number space clearly demonstrates the differences between t,he energeticsof the different parts of the atmosphere. In middle latitudes there are essent,ial differences between the energeticsof the model t,roposphere and t,hat of the model st>ratosphere. In the model troposphere, the eddy kinetic energy isproduced by the conversion of eddy potential energy in the range of wave numbers from 2 to 8. Part of t

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Syukuro Manabe and Douglas G. Hahn

profile of zonal mean decay time scale of theactual atmosphere. In general the decay time scale in middle latitudes of the model is much less than in polar regions.From winter to summer, this region of minimumpersistence extends poleward. Qualitatively, a similar feature is evident in the observed distributionsexcept that the persistence of the model is slightlyless than observed at nearly all troposphericlevels in middle and high latitudes. In tropical regions, from 20-N to 20-S, decaytime

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Toru Sato, Naoki Ao, Mamoru Yamamoto, Shoichiro Fukao, Toshitaka Tsuda, and Susumu Kato

)ABSTRACT During the passage of Typhoon 8719 a 60-h continuous observation was made of the troposphere and thelower stratosphere with the MU (middle and upper atmosphere) radar. Height profiles of the wind velocityvector were measured every 2.5 min with a height resolution of 150 m. The typhoon struck Japan's main islandon 17 October 1987, and passed within 100 km of the MU radar. A clear turning of the wind velocity associatedwith the typhoon was observed up to a height of around 18 km, while short

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CLIMATE AND THE OCEAN CIRCULATION

II. THE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION AND THE EFFECT OF HEAT TRANSFER BY OCEAN CURRENTS

SYUKURO MANABE

modification by the energy exchange between the model ocean and atmos-phere creates a favorable place for the development of cyclones off the east coast of the continent in high latitudes. In the Tropics, the upwelling of relatively cold water at the Equator suppresses the intensity of rainfall in theoceanic region and increases it in the continental region. This increase significantly alters the hydrology of the trop-ical continent. In middle and subtropical latitudes, the advection of warm water by the

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EXPERIMENTS WITH A STRATOSPHERIC GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL

II. LARGE-SCALE DIFFUSION OF TRACERS IN THE STRATOSPHERE

BARRIE G. HUNT and SYUKURO MANABE

tracers in middle and high latitudes, but the supply of tracer for these eddies was prin-cipally maintained from the higher levels by thz downward branches of the meridional circulation. Two meridionalcells were found to occur in the stratosphere, a tropical direct cell and a higher latitude indirect, cell, and these provideda natural explanation for many of the observed features of the tracer distributions in the actual atmosphere. Theonly major tropospheric-stratospheric exchange took place in the

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