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Oreste Reale, William K. Lau, Kyu-Myong Kim, and Eugenia Brin

semioperational version of the model being run at that time by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was capable of producing well-defined tropical cyclone structures, even if initialized with low-resolution analyses in which cyclones were either not present or not properly analyzed. Shen et al. (2006) used a higher-resolution research version of the same model producing center pressures on the order of 920 hPa for Hurricane Katrina. Reale et al. (2007) analyzed the performance of the

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R. A. Hansell, S. C. Tsay, Q. Ji, N. C. Hsu, M. J. Jeong, S. H. Wang, J. S. Reid, K. N. Liou, and S. C. Ou

. Downward thermal emissions from dust were also observed to increase owing to the larger dust particle sizes ( Slingo et al. 2006 ). Haywood et al. (2005) compared the OLR from the Met Office unified operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with that determined from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment instrument onboard Meteosat-7 . By including observation-based optical properties of mineral dust in the radiative transfer calculations, Haywood et al. suggested that dust DRE LW can be

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Edward K. Vizy and Kerry H. Cook

model (RRTM) radiation schemes. The simulated position and magnitude of the vortex center at the surface, 850 hPa, and 700 hPa is then compared with the ECMWF operational reanalysis and—in the case for the second wave—National Hurricane Center (NHC) observations to evaluate the simulation performance. Although all six of the simulations were reasonably able to produce the storm track, Fig. 2 shows that only one parameterization combination realistically captured the intensification for the second

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Zhaoxia Pu, Xuanli Li, and Juanzhen Sun

wind data were assimilated into the model simulation to investigate the intensity change of Dennis near a landfall event during 0600 UTC 8 July–0000 UTC 9 July 2005. The impact of the Doppler radar data on the structure of Dennis was evaluated. The influence of the Doppler radar data on the hurricane forecast was also examined. The results suggest the following: The assimilation of radar reflectivity data resulted in a notable influence on the thermal and hydrometeor structures of the hurricane

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Robert Cifelli, Timothy Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, Nick Guy, Edward J. Zipser, Jon Zawislak, and Robert Holzworth

, and E. E. Recker , 1977 : The structure and properties of African wave disturbances as observed during phase III of GATE. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 105 , 317 – 333 . Reed , R. J. , A. Hollingsworth , W. A. Heckley , and F. Delsol , 1988 : An evaluation of the performance of the ECMWF operational system in analyzing and forecasting easterly wave disturbances over Africa and the tropical Atlantic. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 116 , 824 – 865 . Rickenbach , T. , and S. A. Rutledge , 1998

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