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Thomas H. A. Frame, John Methven, Nigel M. Roberts, and Helen A. Titley

. Soc. , 122 , 73 – 119 , doi: 10.1002/qj.49712252905 . Morss, R. E. , Lazo J. K. , Brown B. G. , Brooks H. E. , Ganderton P. T. , and Mills B. N. , 2008 : Societal and economic research and applications for weather forecasts: Priorities for the North American THORPEX program . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 89 , 335 – 346 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-89-3-335 . Neu, U. , and Coauthors , 2013 : IMILAST: A community effort to intercompare extratropical cyclone detection and tracking

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H. F. Dacre, P. A. Clark, O. Martinez-Alvarado, M. A. Stringer, and D. A. Lavers

heavy flooding rainfall in Nashville, Tennessee, and vicinity during 1–2 May 2010: The role of an atmospheric river and mesoscale convective systems . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 140 , 358 – 378 , doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-11-00126.1 . Neiman , P. J. , F. M. Ralph , G. A. Wick , J. D. Lundquist , and M. D. Dettinger , 2008 : Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the west coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite

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David M. Schultz and Joseph M. Sienkiewicz

region. The term refers to Grønås's (1995) invocation of the “poisonous tail of the bent-back occlusion,” deriving from the Norwegian School's recognition of strong winds at the end of a bent-back occluded front in many cyclones that are now known as Shapiro–Keyser (1990) cyclones. Wind speed maxima resembling sting jets have been identified in other North Atlantic, North Pacific, and European cyclones (e.g., Von Ahn et al. 2005 ; Parton et al. 2010 ; Baker et al. 2013b ). Martínez

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Sam Hardy, David M. Schultz, and Geraint Vaughan

Alpine rainstorm: Sensitivity to the mesoscale upper-level structure . Wea. Forecasting , 15 , 4 – 28 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0434(2000)015<0004:AARSTT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0434(2000)015<0004:AARSTT>2.0.CO;2 Gaza , R. S. , and L. F. Bosart , 1990 : Trough-merger characteristics over North America . Wea. Forecasting , 5 , 314 – 331 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0434(1990)005<0314:TMCONA>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0434(1990)005<0314:TMCONA>2.0.CO;2 Grams , C. M. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The key role

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C. Dearden, G. Vaughan, T. Tsai, and J.-P. Chen

temperature. Similarly a single prognostic variable is used to treat precipitation, using temperature to distinguish rain from snow. The Ferrier scheme is used operationally by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in the WRF North American Mesoscale Forecast System (WRF-NAM) model, and is designed with computational efficiency in mind. As such it only treats total condensate as a prognostic variable, and the fractional contribution of cloud water, rain, and ice to total condensate is

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