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Lisa Milani, Mark S. Kulie, Daniele Casella, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Giulia Panegrossi, Veljko Petkovic, Sarah E. Ringerud, Jean-François Rysman, Paolo Sanò, Nai-Yu Wang, Yalei You, and Gail Skofronick-Jackson

waters, coastlines, and sea ice edge. These classes come from a cluster analysis, purely empirical self-grouping of emissivity characteristics ( Prigent et al. 2006 ). The TPW and T2m parameters are obtained from the Global Atmospheric Analysis (GANAL; JMA 2000 ) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ( Dee et al. 2011 ) reanalysis datasets for the operational and the climatological GPROF outputs, respectively. For this study, the 1C-R-GMI product (TBs) and the climatological 2A

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Sarah Ringerud, Christa Peters-Lidard, Joe Munchak, and Yalei You

precipitation content, so additional assumptions about the vertical distribution of hydrometeors are required to calculate the surface precipitation rates desired by users of the data ( Smith et al. 1994 ). GPM, with collocated radiometer and dual-frequency (Ku/Ka band, or 14 and 35 GHz) precipitation radar (DPR), along with a constellation of partner radiometers, is an excellent tool for exploring these issues and relationships, with application toward the improvement of global retrievals. The operational

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Veljko Petković, Marko Orescanin, Pierre Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, and Ralph Ferraro

current operational algorithm is allowed to use radar-observed convective fraction information (bright blue) as an additional ancillary parameter (see section 4a ). As expected, a better match to the reference suggests that the information on convective fraction might be a key to mitigating PMW biases seen in Fig. 1 . However, radar observations of precipitation from space are sparse, typically limited to research missions (e.g., TRMM and GPM) and intended to serve as a reference rather than a

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Clément Guilloteau and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

. 1996 , 2001 , 2015 ; Kubota et al. 2007 ; Gopalan et al. 2010 ; Mugnai et al. 2013 ; Ebtehaj et al. 2015 ; Kidd et al. 2016 ; Petković et al. 2018 ). The TRMM ( Kummerow et al. 2000 ) and GPM ( Hou et al. 2014 ; Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2017 ) satellite missions in particular provided the data and the research framework allowing the successful development of research and operational retrieval algorithms. Today, the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) is integrated in an international constellation

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