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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

NEE over the derived tower footprints ( Lin et al. 2003 ; Nehrkorn et al. 2010 ). The 4D meteorological fields used in STILT were calculated with the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) in the Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW, version 3.7 ( Michalakes et al. 2001 ). For the WRF boundary conditions, we used the NCEP Final (FNL) operational global analysis data with 1° horizontal resolution and a 6-hourly temporal resolution, respectively ( Kalnay et al. 1990 ) for 27 vertical levels. The NCEP

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

experiment was the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, version 3.5) Model, a next-generation mesoscale numerical weather prediction system designed for both atmospheric research and operational applications ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). The simulations were conducted with three horizontal nested grids with grid spacing of 16, 4, and 1 km, respectively ( Figure 5 ). The coarser-resolution grid covers a good portion of the northern Pacific and western United States, and the finer-resolution grid covers the

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

model and concluded that increased urban heat island effect can decrease the time required for rainwater formation, while moving the horizontal location closer to the heating center. Craig and Bornstein (2002) found that the UHI can induce convergence and convection. Using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Model, Lin et al. (2011) found that the UHI can affect the location of thunderstorms and precipitation in northern Taiwan. Veerbeek et al. (2011) found that extreme rainfall over the

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