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Laura Bianco, Daniel Gottas, and James M. Wilczak

1. Introduction The implementation of real-time data quality control is of fundamental importance for observations that are assimilated into operational numerical weather prediction models. One of the most vexing quality-control problems affecting radar wind profilers has been signal contamination from nocturnally migrating birds ( Wilczak et al. 1995 ). Although techniques have been developed that helped reduce the level of contamination ( Wilczak et al. 1995 ; Merritt 1995 ), these were

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A. B. White, M. L. Anderson, M. D. Dettinger, F. M. Ralph, A. Hinojosa, D. R. Cayan, R. K. Hartman, D. W. Reynolds, L. E. Johnson, T. L. Schneider, R. Cifelli, Z. Toth, S. I. Gutman, C. W. King, F. Gehrke, P. E. Johnston, C. Walls, D. Mann, D. J. Gottas, and T. Coleman

GPS receiver sites in the PBO network that were already GPS-Met compatible but needed real-time communications to make them useful for operational weather forecasting applications. Because of the initial success of the project, UNAVCO has added six additional GPS-Met sites to the California network to support this application in areas devoid of atmospheric or geodetic observations. Finally, some of the GPS-Met sites are collocated with other new or existing HMT-West observing sites in this project

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Valery M. Melnikov, Richard J. Doviak, Dusan S. Zrnić, and David J. Stensrud

typically occur at the top of the convective boundary layer (CBL) (e.g., Wyngaard and LeMone 1980 ; Fairall 1991 ), where there is strong mixing of moist and dry air. Monitoring of the CBL is very important for forecasting the timing and likelihood of storm initiation. Heinselman et al. (2009) and Elmore et al. (2012) show that if the reflectivity field obtained with the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) in “clear air” exhibits an elevated maximum, its height correlates well with

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Elías Lau, Scott McLaughlin, Frank Pratte, Bob Weber, David Merritt, Maikel Wise, Gary Zimmerman, Matthew James, and Megan Sloan

height ( Hashiguchi et al. 1995 ; Cohn and Angevine 2000 ), cold front characterization ( Browning et al. 1998 ), heat and momentum fluxes ( Angevine et al. 1993 ), classification of precipitating clouds ( Williams et al. 1995 ), and rainfall drop size distributions ( Schafer et al. 2002 ). Operational applications include weather forecasting, air quality forecasting for urban areas, and wind shear determination at airports. Typical BL RWPs currently deployed utilize antenna arrays, either several

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