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James N. Moum, Simon P. de Szoeke, William D. Smyth, James B. Edson, H. Langley DeWitt, Aurélie J. Moulin, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Christopher J. Zappa, Steven A. Rutledge, Richard H. Johnson, and Christopher W. Fairall

, between the horn of India and Revelle , intensified. This region was identified by the U.S. Joint Tropical Warning Center (JTWC) as a tropical disturbance and upgraded to a tropical depression on 26 November. This event was forecast with a lead time of 6 days and was not unexpected; nevertheless, it caused significant loss of life and property damage along Sri Lanka's southeast coast (see sidebar on the impact of tropical cyclone 05A on Sri Lanka ). IMPACT OF TROPICAL CYCLONE 05A ON SRI LANKA As the

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Simon P. de Szoeke, Eric D. Skyllingstad, Paquita Zuidema, and Arunchandra S. Chandra

in models (e.g., Rio et al. 2009 ; Schlemmer and Hohenegger 2014 ). Improved modeling combined with precise remote sensing provides new insights into the relative strengths of varying cold pool processes (e.g., Feng et al. 2015 ). Basic near-surface observations of cold pool properties complement these perspectives from modeling. The tropical BL is a reservoir of moist static energy that drives cumulus convection. Its temperature and humidity determine the conditional buoyancy of a cumulus

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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

) microwave radiometer, and a lidar ceilometer. The W-band cloud radar sampled clouds and precipitation in low-altitude mode (0–7 km) when on station at the equator, and in high-altitude mode (0–14 km) when the Revelle was in transit. The microwave radiometer sampled column liquid water and water vapor path, and the ceilometers sampled cloud-base heights and uncalibrated optical backscatter. These remote sensing measurements have been analyzed to retrieve hourly cloud properties such as cloud liquid

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Douglas C. Stolz, Steven A. Rutledge, Weixin Xu, and Jeffrey R. Pierce

, S. S. Babu , R. R. Reddy , and K. R. Gopal , 2009 : Large scale modulations of spectral aerosol optical depths by atmospheric planetary waves . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 36 , L03810 , doi: 10.1029/2008GL036509 . 10.1029/2008GL036509 Boccippio , D. J. , S. J. Goodman , and S. Heckman , 2000 : Regional differences in tropical lightning distributions . J. Appl. Meteor. , 39 , 2231 – 2248 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<2231:RDITLD>2.0.CO;2 . 10

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David M. Zermeño-Díaz, Chidong Zhang, Pavlos Kollias, and Heike Kalesse

al. 2000 ). Data from Manus also included observations from a microwave radiometer (MWR), upper-air soundings, a micropulse lidar (MPL), a ceilometer, and optical rain gauges. Other data used are rainfall estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B42v7; 0.25° × 0.25°; Kummerow et al. 2000 ); rainfall, specific humidity, and its physical tendency term from the operational analysis (0.56° × 0.56°) of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) prepared for

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Hyodae Seo, Aneesh C. Subramanian, Arthur J. Miller, and Nicholas R. Cavanaugh

the land surface process ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ). The mixed-layer dynamics of ROMS are parameterized using a K -profile parameterization (KPP) scheme ( Large et al. 1994 ). Implicit diffusivity associated with third-order upstream horizontal advection is used in the lateral plane as opposed to explicit diffusivity. The ROMS in this configuration uses Jerlov’s (1968) optical classification of water type I, which assumes the most transparent water. The sensitivity of the result to the choice of

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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, and Merhala Thurai

Indian and west Pacific Oceans, respectively. The spectra of integral rain parameters and separation between convective (C) and stratiform (S) rain were similar at each location, suggesting that cloud microphysical and dynamical properties are also similar at these locations. Both are open ocean locations with characteristically warm sea surface temperatures and influenced by similar large-scale forcing, such as the ITCZ and MJO. DSDs were characterized by high number concentrations ( N w ) and small

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Kunio Yoneyama, Chidong Zhang, and Charles N. Long

Manus Island (AMIE-Manus) in the western Pacific to document the evolution in the surface, atmosphere, cloud, and aerosol optical properties for MJO events at their initiation and propagation stages during the EOP using an almost identical suite of instruments. The instruments deployed at Gan and Manus sites include 3-hourly radiosondes, vertically pointing Ka-band radar, micropulse lidar, high-spectral-resolution lidar, wind profiler, dual and three-channel microwave radiometers, ceilometer, rain

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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, Merhala Thurai, and V. Chandrasekar

: Relationships between the raindrop size distribution and properties of the environment and clouds inferred from TRMM . J. Climate , 25 , 2963 – 2978 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00274.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00274.1 Nguyen , C. M. , D. N. Moisseev , and V. Chandrasekar , 2008 : A parametric time domain method for spectral moment estimation and clutter mitigation for weather radars . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 25 , 83 – 92 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JTECHA927.1 . 10.1175/2007JTECHA

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