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Ali Tokay, Annakaisa von Lerber, Claire Pettersen, Mark S. Kulie, Dmitri N. Moisseev, and David B. Wolff

Abstract

Performance of the Precipitation Imaging Package (PIP) for estimating the snow water equivalent (SWE) is evaluated through a comparative study with the collocated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service snow stake field measurements. The PIP together with a vertically pointing radar, a weighing bucket gauge, and a laser-optical disdrometer was deployed at the NWS Marquette, Michigan office building for a long-term field study supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Global Precipitation Measurement mission Ground Validation program. The site was also equipped with a weather station. During the 2017-18 winter, the PIP functioned nearly uninterrupted at frigid temperatures accumulating 2345.8 mm of geometric snow depth over a total of 499 hours. This long record consists of 30 events, and the PIP-retrieved and snow stake field measured SWE differed less than 15% in every event. Two of the major events with the longest duration and the highest accumulation are examined in detail. The particle mass with a given diameter was much lower during a shallow, colder, uniform lake-effect event than in the deep, less cold, and variable synoptic event. This study demonstrated that the PIP is a robust instrument for operational use, and is reliable for deriving the bulk properties of falling snow.

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Randy J. Chase, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Greg M. McFarquhar

1. Introduction Despite being confined to high latitudes and altitudes when occurring at the surface, snow can be related to approximately 50% by number ( Field and Heymsfield 2015 ) and approximately 60% by mass accumulation ( Heymsfield et al. 2020 ) of all precipitation across cold and warm climates. Thus, the accurate retrieval of snow properties is required for an accurate quantification of the hydrologic cycle. Furthermore, the quantitative retrieval of snowfall properties is invaluable

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Sybille Y. Schoger, Dmitri Moisseev, Annakaisa von Lerber, Susanne Crewell, and Kerstin Ebell

( Førland et al. 2011 ). Additionally, the measurement of snow particles and the identification of the true amount of snow at the ground is a challenging task due to the complex and strongly variable microphysical properties of snow and ice crystals. For classical precipitation gauges, the liquid equivalent amount of snow is a direct measure; however, it is prone to large uncertainties especially in windy conditions ( Rasmussen et al. 2012 ) and still only a point information of precipitation. Radar

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George Duffy, Greg Mcfarquhar, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Ralf Bennartz

benefits of dual-frequency radar measurements for frozen precipitation retrievals are well studied. The Z – D m relationships can vary considerably with respect to changes in microphysical properties such as concentration, particle shape or density, while the DWR– D m relationships are much less sensitive to changes in ice crystal properties and are theoretically unaffected by changes in ice crystal concentration ( Matrosov 1998 ; Liao et al. 2016 ; Leinonen et al. 2018a ). Matrosov (1998

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Xiang Ni, Chuntao Liu, and Edward Zipser

limited area model intercomparison simulations using TWP-ICE observations: 2. Precipitation microphysics . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 119 , 13 919 – 13 945 , https://doi.org/10.1002/2013jd021372 . 10.1002/2013JD021372 Wang , Z. , G. M. Heymsfield , L. Li , and A. J. Heymsfield , 2005 : Retrieving optically thick ice cloud microphysical properties by using airborne dual-wavelength radar measurements . J. Geophys. Res. , 110 , D19201 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD005969 . 10

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Mark Kulie, Lisa Milani, Stephen J. Munchak, Norman B. Wood, and Vincenzo Levizzani

F. Weng , 2010 : Uncertainties in microwave optical properties of frozen precipitation: Implications for remote sensing and data assimilation . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 3471 – 3487 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JAS3520.1 . 10.1175/2010JAS3520.1 Kulie , M. S. , M. J. Hiley , R. Bennartz , S. Kneifel , and S. Tanelli , 2014 : Triple frequency radar reflectivity signatures of snow: Observations and comparisons to theoretical ice particle scattering models . J. Appl. Meteor

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Andrea Camplani, Daniele Casella, Paolo Sanò, and Giulia Panegrossi

1. Introduction Snow plays an important role in the Earth energy exchange processes and is a fundamental element of the water cycle. Higher-latitude regions are experiencing significant modifications related to climate change. While the effect on temperatures is relatively well known, the impacts on precipitation, snow/ice extent, and snow/ice properties are less documented and less understood. The use of satellites for snowfall monitoring and quantification and for retrieving snow

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Ali Tokay, Leo Pio D’Adderio, Federico Porcù, David B. Wolff, and Walter A. Petersen

parameters at the site. Early disdrometer-based spatial variability studies employed only three ( Tokay and Bashor 2010 ) or four ( Lee et al. 2009 ; Schröer 2011 ) units, and their findings were limited to quantifying the spatial variability within a single satellite footprint. With the availability of cost effective laser-optical disdrometers (Parsivel and Thies) there has been a noticeable increase in the number of disdrometer-based spatial variability studies. Tapiador et al. (2010) demonstrated

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Paloma Borque, Kirstin J. Harnos, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Greg M. McFarquhar

presence of supercooled liquid water ( Brown 1982 ). Baumgardner et al. (2017) and references therein describe the different in situ probes and measurements that are used to characterize the microphysical properties of ice clouds. Two-dimensional cloud probe data from the UND Citation were processed by the System for Optical Array Probe Data Analysis (SODA) software developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. PSDs were obtained from a combination of observations from the Cloud Imaging

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Kenneth D. Leppert II and Daniel J. Cecil

inhomogeneity on the microwave optical properties of graupel and hailstones . IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 55 , 6366 – 6378 , https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2017.2726994 . 10.1109/TGRS.2017.2726994 Vivekanandan , J. , J. Turk , and V. N. Bringi , 1991 : Ice water path estimation and characterization using passive microwave radiometry . J. Appl. Meteor. , 30 , 1407 – 1421 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1991)030<1407:IWPEAC>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0450(1991)030<1407:IWPEAC>2.0.CO;2

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