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A L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, J. Kala, R. Lorenz, and M. G. Donat

evapotranspiration ( Fischer et al. 2007 ; Lorenz et al. 2010 ; Jaeger and Seneviratne 2011 ; Zhang and Wu 2011 ; Mueller and Seneviratne 2012 ; Roundy et al. 2014 ). LUC modifies the biophysical characteristics of the land surface, the surface energy balance ( Boisier et al. 2012 ), and how the land connects to the boundary layer. In Australia, LUC is most commonly associated with a change from native forest to grasslands and crops and is known through observations to affect the atmosphere. Early studies

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Keith J. Harding, Tracy E. Twine, and Yaqiong Lu

that can respond to variations in temperature and moisture stress ( Lu et al. 2015 ). The Great Plains have been previously identified as one of three global maxima in land–atmosphere coupling ( Koster et al. 2004 ), as variations in soil moisture are positively correlated with precipitation in the region ( Koster et al. 2003 ). The Great Plains low-level jet (GPLLJ), a nocturnal southerly wind maximum, is the primary driver of summertime convective rainfall in the region ( Higgins et al. 1997

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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

al. 2002 ; Wang et al. 2014 ). The strength, frequency, and persistence of midlatitude extreme weather events are linked to midlatitude atmospheric circulation patterns and are projected to increase under future climate change ( Barriopedro et al. 2011 ; Reichstein et al. 2013 ; Zscheischler et al. 2015 ). There is strong evidence that amplified quasi-stationary planetary waves favor extreme weather events in the midlatitudes ( Coumou et al. 2015 ; Screen and Simmonds 2014 ). In particular, a

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

1. Introduction The vertical exchange of CO 2 between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere constitutes the largest, single-component flux in the global carbon cycle (e.g., Beer et al. 2010 ). Spatiotemporal patterns of flux exchange display pronounced variability between regions. The Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States represents one of the strongest carbon sinks in North America (e.g., Law et al. 2004 ; Law and Waring 2015 ). Accurate quantification of the magnitude of

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

al. 1993 ) for water vapor (H 2 O). Then, the scattering effect due to atmospheric molecules and aerosols is modeled with the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) computer code ( Vermote et al. 1994 ). The measured radiances are divided by solar irradiances above the atmosphere to obtain apparent reflectances, and finally the surface reflectances are derived from the apparent reflectances using the simulated atmospheric gaseous transmittances and the simulated

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

Mellor–Yamada–Janjić scheme for planetary boundary layer physics ( Janjić 1990 , 1996 , 2002 ; Mellor and Yamada 1982 ); the Kain–Fritsch convective parameterization scheme ( Kain 2004 ) for the outer domain; and no convective parameterization for the inner domain. 2.2. Study domain The study region mainly covers the state of Arizona, from latitude 30.7° to 35.7°N and longitude 115.2° to 108.2°W. We use two nested domains with outer grid spacing of 10 km and inner grid spacing of 2 km (see Figure

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

savanna and annual grassland in California, USA . Tellus , 65B , 19994 , doi: 10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.19994 . Beltrán-Przekurat , A. , R. A. Pielke Sr. , J. L. Eastman , and M. B. Coughenour , 2012 : Modelling the effects of land-use/land-cover changes on the near-surface atmosphere in southern South America . Int. J. Climatol. , 32 , 1206 – 1225 , doi: 10.1002/joc.2346 . Blackadar , A. K. , 1979 : High resolution models of the planetary boundary layer . Adv. Environ. Sci. Eng

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