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David M. Schultz, Derek S. Arndt, David J. Stensrud, and Jay W. Hanna

, however, is a strong possibility since the bands were associated with a strong cold-air outbreak, were regularly spaced over a large area, and occurred within the planetary boundary layer. Thus, a working hypothesis is that horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) may be associated with band formation in this case. In the rest of this section, we provide some background information on HCRs. If sufficiently deep and moist, the updrafts associated with HCRs in the planetary boundary layer can saturate and

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Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, and Marion Maturilli

the Arctic stratospheric vortex were unusually cold ( Fig. 3 ). In November–December 2015, the Arctic vortex was minimally disturbed by upward-propagating planetary waves ( Matthias et al. 2016 ) and the polar cap minimum temperature T MIN between 65° and 90°N dropped well below the climatological mean. The red T MIN line in Fig. 3 reveals that the threshold of T NAT at 50 hPa was already reached at the beginning of December 2015, and T MIN dropped below T FROST at the end of 2015

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Bryce J. Weinand

. 5 , was able to record the vertical profile in the area close to where the eddies originated. This area of formation is apparent in the water vapor image as the darker filament extending from central South Dakota southwest into Colorado ( Fig. 1 ). One striking feature of the sounding is that there is weak vertical wind shear present above the planetary boundary layer. There is also a very distinct inversion between 650 and 600 mb where the dewpoint decreases sharply. This is characteristic of

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