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Andrea Schneidereit, Dieter H. W. Peters, Christian M. Grams, Julian F. Quinting, Julia H. Keller, Gabriel Wolf, Franziska Teubler, Michael Riemer, and Olivia Martius

suggestions, which helped to improve the manuscript. REFERENCES Albers , J. R. , and T. Birner , 2014 : Vortex preconditioning due to planetary and gravity waves prior to sudden stratospheric warmings . J. Atmos. Sci. , 71 , 4028 – 4054 , doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-14-0026.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-14-0026.1 Andrews , D. G. , J. R. Holton , and C. B. Leovy , 1987 : Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. International Geophysics Series, Vol. 40, Academic Press, 489 pp. Ayarzagüena , B. , U. Langematz , and E

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Olivia Martius and Heini Wernli

form in an initially jet-free atmosphere through the stirring by baroclinic eddies only (e.g., Lee 1997 ). The eddy-driven jets are located in areas with strong surface baroclinicity in the extratropics. Subtropical (“shallow”) jets are located at the poleward edge of the Hadley cell and owe their existence in a first approximation to the transport of angular momentum from the tropics into the subtropics (e.g., Held and Hou 1980 ). It has been shown that subtropical eddies can significantly

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

-00304.1 Charney , J. , 1955 : The use of the primitive equations of motion in numerical prediction . Tellus , 7 , 22 – 26 , . 10.3402/tellusa.v7i1.8772 Charney , J. , and P. G. Drazin , 1961 : Propagation of planetary-scale disturbances from the lower into the upper atmosphere . J. Geophys. Res. , 66 , 83 – 109 , . 10.1029/JZ066i001p00083 Chen , G. , J. Lu , D. A. Burrows , and L. R. Leung , 2015

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Andrea Schneidereit, Silke Schubert, Pavel Vargin, Frank Lunkeit, Xiuhua Zhu, Dieter H. W. Peters, and Klaus Fraedrich

, transients, and large-scale modes may contribute to the long-lasting blocking high on different time scales. Therefore, the present study focuses on the analysis of the interannual time scale using the summer mean to indicate the quasi-stationary wave structure, the synoptic time scale analyzing the mean eddy influence, and the intermediate time scale (~10–60 days) to show the wave train evolution. Besides the atmospheric dynamics, the land surface–atmosphere feedback is an additional factor that could

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Gabriel Wolf and Volkmar Wirth

important implications for Rossby wave packet detection, rendering envelope reconstruction through the Hilbert transform less adequate than suggested by its recent popularity. We start investigating the issue by means of synthetic wave packets ( section 2 ), and we propose remedies to overcome the problem ( section 3 ). We then demonstrate that our results are relevant in the real atmosphere by considering specific cases ( section 4 ), which puts into perspective our suggestions to overcome the problems

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Maxi Boettcher and Heini Wernli

models were cloud-diabatic heating in a baroclinic background atmosphere producing a positive potential vorticity (PV) anomaly at low-tropospheric levels. The following basic conditions for DRW existence and propagation emerged from these simulations. The vortex of the positive low-level PV anomaly (that is accompanied by a weak SLP minimum) induces a poleward low-level jet of warm moist air at its downstream side. This stream ascends along the poleward-sloping isentropes until condensation occurs

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Franziska Teubler and Michael Riemer

partitioning based on flow geometry . J. Atmos. Sci. , 71 , 4204 – 4220 , doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-14-0023.1 . Rodwell , M. J. , and Coauthors , 2013 : Characteristics of occasional poor medium-range weather forecasts for Europe . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 94 , 1393 – 1405 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00099.1 . Rossby , C.-G. , 1940 : Planetary flow patterns in the atmosphere . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 66 , 68 – 87 . Schwierz , C. , S. Dirren , and H. C. Davies , 2004 : Forced waves on

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Hilke S. Lentink, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, and Sarah C. Jones

) and for more details on the computational methods]. The model is set up with a horizontal resolution of 0.025° (about 2.5 km at 35°N) and 57 vertical levels up to 30-km height, with an enhanced vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer. Shallow convection is parameterized using the mass-flux scheme of Tiedtke (1989) , while middle and high convection are explicitly computed. For all parameterized processes, the default setup of COSMO is used ( Doms et al

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Yannick Barton, Paraskevi Giannakaki, Harald von Waldow, Clément Chevalier, Stephan Pfahl, and Olivia Martius

, 913 – 925 , doi: 10.5194/nhess-9-913-2009 . Hoinka , K. P. , C. Schwierz , and O. Martius , 2006 : Synoptic-scale weather patterns during Alpine heavy rain events . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 132 , 2853 – 2860 , doi: 10.1256/qj.05.239 . Hoskins , B. J. , and D. J. Karoly , 1981 : The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing . J. Atmos. Sci. , 38 , 1179 – 1196 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1981)038<1179:TSLROA>2.0.CO;2 . Huntingford , C

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