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Junjun Liu and Tapio Schneider

1. Introduction Superrotating (prograde) equatorial jets are ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres. Jupiter and Saturn exhibit equatorial superrotation, as do Venus and Titan ( Porco et al. 2003 ; Sanchez-Lavega et al. 2007 ; Schubert 1983 ; Kostiuk et al. 2001 ). Yet it has remained unclear what distinguishes atmospheres that exhibit equatorial superrotation from those that do not. For example, in an order of magnitude sense, the giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have similar

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Ilai Guendelman, Darryn W. Waugh, and Yohai Kaspi

1. Introduction Zonal jets are ubiquitous features of planetary atmospheres. A common feature of the solar system’s terrestrial planetary bodies with a seasonal cycle is a strong jet in the winter hemisphere. Winter jets are observed in Earth’s stratosphere and troposphere (e.g., Schneider 2006 ; Waugh et al. 2017 ), Mars’s troposphere (e.g., Waugh et al. 2016 ), and Titan’s stratosphere (e.g., Flasar and Achterberg 2009 ). These jets inhibit transport between low and polar latitudes

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Cheng Li, Andrew P. Ingersoll, and Fabiano Oyafuso

: Photochemistry and clouds of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. Recent Advances in Planetary Meteorology , Cambridge University Press, 16–68. Bjoraker , G. L. , M. H. Wong , I. de Pater , and M. Adamkovics , 2015 : Jupiter’s deep cloud structure revealed using Keck observations of spectrally resolved line shapes . Astrophys. J. , 810 , 122 , . 10.1088/0004-637X/810/2/122 Bolton , S. J. , and Coauthors , 2017 : Jupiter’s interior and deep atmosphere

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Junyi Chai, Malte Jansen, and Geoffrey K. Vallis

Earth-like simulations, the Jupiter model simulates a thin shell atmosphere extending from the top of the atmosphere to an artificial rigid lower surface. The mean surface pressure is 3 bar, which is used in a series of studies by Schneider and Liu ( Schneider and Liu 2009 ; Liu and Schneider 2010 , 2011 , 2015 ). The planetary parameters are set to those of Jupiter: planetary radius a = 6.986 × 10 4 km, planetary angular velocity Ω = 1.7587 × 10 −4 s −1 , and specific gas constant R = 3605

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Richard Goody

. But the question under discussion is whether the data analyzed with a gray, two-box, unconstrained model support the MEP hypothesis for planetary atmospheres. They evidently do not. 4. Constraints on MEP If MEP is a correct thermodynamic principle the crux of a useful application is to identify and incorporate in a calculation the constraints appropriate to the problem. The more constraints that are applied, the smaller becomes the parameter space containing the solution and, for practical

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Neil T. Lewis, Greg J. Colyer, and Peter L. Read

1. Introduction The dynamics of planetary atmospheres are sensitive to planetary parameters such as their radius a and sidereal rotation rate Ω, as well as atmospheric properties such as atmospheric composition. This is borne out by the dynamics of the solar system atmospheres. Earth’s atmospheric circulation is characterized by overturning (Hadley) cells which feature air rising near the equator and sinking in the subtropics. In the midlatitudes, prograde jets with zonal velocities of

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Peter L. Read, Yasuhiro H. Yamazaki, Stephen R. Lewis, Paul D. Williams, Robin Wordsworth, Kuniko Miki-Yamazaki, Joël Sommeria, and Henri Didelle

1. Introduction The banded organization of clouds and zonal winds in the atmospheres of the outer planets has long fascinated atmosphere and ocean dynamicists and planetologists, especially with regard to the stability and persistence of these patterns. This banded organization, mainly apparent in clouds thought to be of ammonia and NH 4 SH ice, is one of the most striking features of the atmosphere of Jupiter. The cloud bands are associated with multiple zonal jets of alternating sign with

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Sean Faulk, Jonathan Mitchell, and Simona Bordoni

clouds . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 103 , 18 421 – 18 426 , doi: 10.1073/pnas.0605074103 . 10.1073/pnas.0605074103 Mitchell , J. L. , G. K. Vallis , and S. F. Potter , 2014 : Effects of the seasonal cycle on superrotation in planetary atmospheres . Astrophys. J. , 787 , 23 , doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/787/1/23 . 10.1088/0004-637X/787/1/23 Navarra , A. , and G. Boccaletti , 2002 : Numerical general circulation experiments of sensitivity to Earth rotation rate . Climate Dyn. , 19

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Anne L. Laraia and Tapio Schneider

. Decreasing the baroclinicity of the atmosphere produces a superrotating atmosphere with a much weaker meridional circulation. All other parameters held constant, a decrease in the planetary rotation rate generally leads to an increase in the average equatorial wind speed ( Fig. 2 ). There are deviations from this behavior that occur at the lowest rotation rates, when the midlatitude westerly jets migrate toward the poles, as was already seen in simulations by Del Genio and Zhou (1996) . Fig . 2. Upper

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D. G. Dritschel and M. E. McIntyre

1. Introduction Chaotic flows in stratified, rotating fluid systems like planetary atmospheres and oceans are often called “turbulent.” However, in such systems there is no such thing as turbulence without waves, a point well brought out in the celebrated paper of Rhines (1975) . One way to appreciate the point is to note that such systems always have background gradients of potential vorticity (PV) and then consider the implications for the momentum and angular momentum budgets. As will be

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