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Xianan Jiang, Ángel F. Adames, Ming Zhao, Duane Waliser, and Eric Maloney

proposed to explain the distinct seasonality in MJO propagation (e.g., Waliser 2006 ; Wang 2012 ). One traditional view of the eastward propagation of the winter MJO maintains through triggering of new convection to the east by frictional moisture convergence in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) associated with the equatorial Kelvin wave response to the MJO convective heating (e.g., Salby et al. 1994 ; Wang and Li 1994 ; Maloney and Hartmann 1998 ). Meanwhile, past work has suggested that

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Jiabao Wang, Hyemi Kim, Daehyun Kim, Stephanie A. Henderson, Cristiana Stan, and Eric D. Maloney

/phenomena in the tropics (e.g., Neale et al. 2008 ; Lau and Waliser 2011 ; Jin et al. 2013 ; Zhang 2013 ; Kim et al. 2014b ) and the impact extends outside of the tropical region. Anomalous MJO-induced upper-level divergence can generate anomalous Rossby wave source (RWS) by producing divergent flow anomalies in the region of the strong absolute vorticity and its gradient associated with the midlatitude North Pacific westerly jet ( Sardeshmukh and Hoskins 1988 ). Rossby waves excited by the tropical

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