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Christopher G. Piecuch, Ichiro Fukumori, Rui M. Ponte, and Ou Wang

higher at high latitudes (Arctic and Southern Oceans). Higher values in GRACE over the tropical Pacific could reflect noise in the data—for example, owing to aliasing of tropical instability waves ( Song and Zlotnicki 2004 ), which cannot be simulated by the coarse resolution of the background model used for processing the GRACE data. Higher values in ECCO over the Arctic and Southern Oceans are probably related to the fact that the wind forcing over ice-covered regions in this particular solution

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Peter G. Challenor, Paolo Cipollini, and David Cromwell

1. Introduction Because of its repeat sampling and global quasi-synoptic capability, the satellite-borne radar altimeter is an excellent instrument for looking at large-scale oceanographic phenomena with surface signatures that may be difficult to detect in conventional oceanographic measurements, such as current meter moorings and hydrographic sections. One such dynamical phenomenon is long-wavelength baroclinic Rossby waves. These waves, which are a special type of planetary wave (whose

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C. W. Hughes

contours of planetary barotropic potential vorticity, f/H. Where allthe boundaries are along contours off/H, the extra function is simply a function off/H and time. Where a finitestretch of boundary runs parallel to f/H contours, a further additional function can (at least sometimes) producea complete set, but when the boundary runs parallel tof/H contours for no finite distance, there is no simpleway to augment the wave modes to produce a complete set. It is shown that this incompleteness is only in

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Dimitris Menemenlis and David M. Farmer

velocity at two depths in the boundary layer shows good coherence at internal-wavefrequencies, and some attenuation as the ice is approached. Relative vorticity at internal-wave length scales isdominated by horizontal shear caused by flow interaction with ice topography, and not by planetary vorticity.1. Introduction The concept of reciprocal acoustical travel-timemeasurements as a means of determining path-averaged currents is well established (Worcester 1977).Here we describe an instrument

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B. S. Sandeepan, V. G. Panchang, S. Nayak, K. Krishna Kumar, and J. M. Kaihatu

, 116 – 126 , . 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.12.001 Cavaleri , L. , and L. Bertotti , 1997 : In search of the correct wind and wave fields in a minor basin . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 125 , 1964 – 1975 ,<1964:ISOTCW>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<1964:ISOTCW>2.0.CO;2 Chaouch , N. , M. Temimi , M. Weston , and H. Ghedira , 2017 : Sensitivity of the meteorological model WRF-ARW to planetary

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Toshitaka Tsuda, Tatsuhiro Adachi, Yoshihisa Masuda, Shoichiro Fukao, and Susumu Kato

in phase. The covariancebetween temperature and vertical wind velocity was also determined, and heat flux profiles were further estimated.Although a major part of the fluctuations above 2.5 km could be explained by gravity waves, those below 2.5km altitude seemed to be due to effects of convective motions in the planetary boundary layer.1. Introduction A radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) has beendeveloped as a ground-based remote-sensing techniquefor measurements of atmospheric temperature

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Peter G. Black, Russell L. Elsberry, Lynn K. Shay, Ray P. Partridge, and Jeffrey D. Hawkins

, surface pressure and subsurface ocean temperatureduring and subsequent to storm passage. This represents the first time that such a self-consistent data set ofsurface conditions within a tropical cyclone has been collected. Subsequent NOAA research aircraft overflightsof the buoys, as part of a hurricane planetary bounda~-Iayer experiment, showed that aircrat~ wind speeds,extrapolated to the 20 m level, agreed to within +2 m s-l, pressures agreed to within +1 mb, and sea-surfacetemperatures agreed to

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Adrian Hines and Peter D. Killworth

physics (frictional planetary geostrophy). This model, unlike pure geostrophy as normally employed in inversions, can permit simplified western boundary currents and the inclusion of the equator. The model does not support gravity waves, thus avoiding initialization problems (though Malanotte-Rizzoli et al. 1989 found no shocking to occur when direct insertion was employed). Such simplified models have been used previously (Tziperman et al. 1992; Marotzke and Wunsch 1993), although as simplified

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E. W. Gill, M. L. Khandekar, R. K. Howell, and J. Walsh

, the buoy locationscoincided exactly with the grid locations. The four-digit numbersrefer to the fine-grid points of the wave model CSOWM.cation of a marine planetary boundary layer model, anda subjective kinematic analysis over a limited domainof the CSOWM grid where additional ship and buoywind data were available (see Khandekar et al. 1994).Thus, the wave heights generated by the model whendriven by MMM winds are expected to be closer to theactual sea-state conditions that prevailed during

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V. Sanil Kumar and T. Muhammed Naseef

) with in situ observations located in the nearshore environment. Orographic effects and bathymetry may be at play in this environment. Given this, one would expect to find the lowest confidence in the ERA-I data at the Puducherry site, where partial obstruction from southerly wave energy comes into play, as well as the potential for land–sea interaction with planetary boundary layer wind flow. As indicated, the model results from the onshore monsoonal flow are better depicted by ERA-I. Thus

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