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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

the vortex can be resistant to the environment shear to some extent. Reasor et al. (2004) argued that the tilt asymmetry of the vortex would be damped by radiation of sheared vortex Rossby waves. Recent studies have also identified a reduction in vortex tilt under moderate shear preceding the TC intensification (e.g., Miyamoto and Nolan 2018 ; Rios-Berrios et al. 2018 ). Moreover, the diabatic heating and consequent secondary circulation in TCs are thought to greatly enhance that resistance

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Jonathan Martinez, Michael M. Bell, Robert F. Rogers, and James D. Doyle

radially displaced from the axis of rotation and concentrated along the inner edge of the RMW ( Möller and Smith 1994 ). Prior studies have demonstrated that the radial PV gradients in a TC serve as waveguides for vortex Rossby waves (VRWs; Guinn and Schubert 1993 ; Montgomery and Kallenbach 1997 ). In the presence of a hollow-tower PV structure, the sign reversal of the radial PV gradient satisfies the Rayleigh necessary condition for barotropic instability ( Schubert et al. 1999 ), or more

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William A. Komaromi and James D. Doyle

a model top of 29.4 km. Consistent with the innermost 5-km nest of the operational COAMPS-TC from 2014 to 2016, no deep convective scheme is employed. However, a parameterization of shallow convection is used. The planetary boundary layer is parameterized using a 1.5-order turbulence closure ( Hodur 1997 ). The model was run with dissipative heating ( Jin et al. 2007 ) but without radiation. Microphysics is specified via prognostic equations for mixing ratios of cloud droplets, ice particles

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