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Yuntao Wei and Zhaoxia Pu

1. Introduction The 20–90-day tropical intraseasonal oscillation (TISO) has strong seasonality ( Lau and Waliser 2012 ). The wintertime TISO or the so-called Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ; Zhang 2005 ) features a planetary-scale ( Li and Zhou 2009 ; Wei et al. 2018 ) convection–circulation coupled system that propagates eastward (~5 m s −1 ) from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific ( Hendon and Salby 1994 ). In contrast, the boreal summer intraseasonal

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

1. Introduction Deep convective structures populate the tropics, provide the energetics that drive the large-scale tropical circulation, and interact with superimposed atmospheric waves ( Riehl and Malkus 1957 ; Lorenz 1969 ; Hendon and Liebmann 1991 ; Kiladis and Weickmann 1992 ; Chang 1995 ; Lane et al. 2001 ; Fierro et al. 2009 ). The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 , 1994 ; Zhang 2005 ) is one such disturbance, and while the MJO is commonly defined

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