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Kaoru Sato and Motoyoshi Yoshiki

planetary waves and baroclinic waves are more important in this region (e.g., Plumb 2002 ). It was shown theoretically ( Tanaka and Yamanaka 1985 ; Palmer et al. 1986 ; McFarlane 1987 ) and observationally ( Lilly and Kennedy 1973 ; Sato 1994 ) that the weak wind layer in the lower stratosphere was partly maintained by topographically forced gravity waves. In the equatorial middle atmosphere, gravity wave–induced forces do not cause the meridional circulation because the Coriolis force balancing

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Shuguang Wang, Fuqing Zhang, and Chris Snyder

evolving dipoles can be used to infer the dependence of wave amplitudes on jet strength and Rossby number because the vortex dipole flow evolves with different Rossby numbers. The Eulerian Rossby number is defined as Ro = U / FL , where U is the maximum wind speed and L is the distance between the vortex cores. However, other definitions of Rossby number can also be used—for instance, the local Rossby number Ro = ζ / f as the ratio between the relative vorticity and planetary vorticity. The

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Michael E. McIntyre

, 1995 : Generation of inertia–gravity waves in a simulated life cycle of baroclinic instability. J. Atmos. Sci. , 52 , 3695 – 3716 . Plougonven , R. , and C. Snyder , 2005 : Gravity waves excited by jets: Propagation versus generation. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 32 , L18802 . doi:10.1029/2005GL023730 . Rossby , C-G. , 1936 : Dynamics of steady ocean currents in the light of experimental fluid mechanics. Pap. Phys. Oceanogr. Meteor. , 5 , 1 – 43 . Rossby , C-G. , 1940 : Planetary

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John A. Knox, Donald W. McCann, and Paul D. Williams

a source of gravity waves via the local change of the horizontal advection of horizontal divergence; and term 1C is the time derivative of the familiar Jacobian term found in both the divergence equation and in its approximated form, the nonlinear balance equation (NBE; Zhang et al. 2000 ). Term 2 is expressible as a combination of the horizontal divergence and the vertical component of relative vorticity ζ : The product of divergence, planetary vorticity, and relative vorticity is found in

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Dong L. Wu and Stephen D. Eckermann

–4 adjacent scans of MLS radiances, we will be able to increase the cutoff horizontal wavelengths to 500–600 km. For all the GW studies extended to long horizontal wavelengths, however, we need to be careful not to alias in planetary waves (e.g., Kelvin or mixed Rossby–gravity waves). The inability to distinguish GWs from planetary waves, which often have vertical wavelengths as short as 3–4 km, has been an issue with GW observations from radiosondes, rocketsondes, and other satellite limb techniques (e

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