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Alan J. Geer, Peter Bauer, and Christopher W. O’Dell

the densities that are most directly related to the radiative transfer. The effect on the 2R brightness temperatures of scaling the fluxes versus scaling the densities can be as much as +0.5 or −1.5 K in channel 37v in some cloudy and rainy areas. However, this is minor in comparison with the overall differences between 2C and 2R. b. Reference model 20ICA uses 20 equal-sized subcolumns, with clouds allocated according to maximum-random overlap and precipitation allowed to fall out of cloud into

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Axel Andersson, Christian Klepp, Karsten Fennig, Stephan Bakan, Hartmut Grassl, and Jörg Schulz

global water cycle datasets from retrievals of relevant ocean and atmospheric parameters such as sea surface temperature, winds, air humidity, and precipitation. Such datasets are provided with a better spatiotemporal sampling in comparison with in situ observations. The microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum is ideally suited to retrieve precipitation and parameters useful to estimate latent heat flux and evaporation using a parameterization. At low microwave frequencies the emitted

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Frank S. Marzano, Domenico Cimini, Tommaso Rossi, Daniele Mortari, Sabatino Di Michele, and Peter Bauer

, which denotes p ( x | y ), the a posteriori probability density function (pdf) of x when y is observed, in terms of the likelihood pdf p ( y | x ) and a priori pdf p ( x ). In our context the link between x and y is described by the radiative transfer observation operator, H , which may be strongly nonlinear and characterized by an error distribution ε , summarizing both observation errors and forward modeling errors with an overall error covariance matrix 𝗖 ε . For linear problems the

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J. J. Shi, W-K. Tao, T. Matsui, R. Cifelli, A. Hou, S. Lang, A. Tokay, N-Y. Wang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen

shortwave schemes recently added into WRF, and discussed in section 2 , were adopted to provide longwave and shortwave parameterizations that interact with the atmosphere. The planetary boundary layer parameterization for this study was the Mellor–Yamada–Janjić ( Mellor and Yamada 1982 ; coded and modified by Dr. Janjić for the NCEP Eta Model) level-2 turbulence closure model for the full range of atmospheric turbulent regimes. The surface heat and moisture fluxes (from both ocean and land) were

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