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Samson M. Hagos, Zhe Feng, Casey D. Burleyson, Chun Zhao, Matus N. Martini, and Larry K. Berg

, M. W. Shephard , S. A. Clough , and W. D. Collins , 2008 : Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D13103 , doi: 10.1029/2008JD009944 . Janjić , Z. I. , 1994 : The step-mountain eta coordinate model: Further developments of the convection, viscous sublayer, and turbulence closure schemes . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 122 , 927 – 945 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1994)122<0927:TSMECM>2.0.CO;2 . Johnson

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Ji-Eun Kim, Chidong Zhang, George N. Kiladis, and Peter Bechtold

negative bias in this quantity because of its limitations in the detection of high cirrus clouds from ground-based radar. CERES might overestimate radiative heating (underestimate cooling) because of its radiative transfer model dependence on the MERRA reanalysis, which has biases in upper-level humidity. The actual radiative heating is likely bracketed by the estimates of CombRet and CERES because of these uncertainties. If so, the IFS-RF produces reasonable column-averaged radiative heating. d. Q 1

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Eric D. Skyllingstad and Simon P. de Szoeke

with higher surface winds and suppressed MJO phase moisture convergence to examine how increased surface fluxes from stronger winds affect convective activity versus externally forced moisture convergence. Simulations are conducted using a version of the Skyllingstad and Edson (2009) LES model that includes parameterizations for the radiative transfer of infrared and solar radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) along with a seven-component cloud microphysics scheme ( Thompson et al. 2008 ). Model

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Paul E. Ciesielski, Richard H. Johnson, Wayne H. Schubert, and James H. Ruppert Jr.

.-M. , and D. A. Randall , 1995 : Impact of interactive radiative transfer on the macroscopic behavior of cumulus ensembles. Part II: Mechanisms for cloud-radiation interaction . J. Atmos. Sci. , 52 , 800 – 817 ,<0800:IOIRTO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<0800:IOIRTO>2.0.CO;2 Xu , W. , and S. A. Rutledge , 2014 : Convective characteristics of the Madden–Julian oscillation over the central Indian Ocean observed by shipborne radar during

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Jianhao Zhang, Paquita Zuidema, David D. Turner, and Maria P. Cadeddu

information is integral to both the retrieval and its assessment. These are provided by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE; Long et al. 2011 ), which brought the ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2; Miller et al. 2016 ) to a location that is approximately 8.5 km southeast of the radiometer. A detailed description of the instruments and the radiative transfer model is provided in section 2 , augmented by the appendix . The retrieval algorithms are introduced in

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Hungjui Yu, Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, and Hung-Chi Kuo

. 2014 ). The CombRet radar product includes high-resolution data from the SMART-R, NCAR’s S-band dual-polarization Doppler radar (S-Pol), and the Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) deployed on Gan. The radiative product was retrieved by using a delta-four-stream correlated- k distribution radiative transfer model ( Mather et al. 2007 , Fu and Liou 1992 ). CombRet is available at 1-h, 25-hPa resolution (from 1000 to 50 hPa) for the period from 10 October 2011 to 8 February 2012. It was averaged into 3

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Shuguang Wang, Adam H. Sobel, Fuqing Zhang, Y. Qiang Sun, Ying Yue, and Lei Zhou

Beljaars 2005 ). This creates diurnally varying surface temperature over both ocean and land. The GCM version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) longwave radiation scheme ( Iacono et al. 2008 ) and the updated Goddard shortwave scheme ( Chou and Suarez 1994 ; T. Matsui et al. 2007, meeting presentation; Shi et al. 2010 ) are used to parameterize radiative processes. Subgrid-scale vertical turbulent eddy mixing is parameterized using the Yonsei University (YSU) PBL scheme ( Hong et al. 2006

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Matthew A. Janiga and Chidong Zhang

-moment Morrison scheme, which has five prognostic hydrometeor types (cloud water q c , cloud ice q i , rain q r , snow q s , and graupel q g ) ( Morrison et al. 2005 , 2009 ). Radiation processes are parameterized using the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) scheme ( Iacono et al. 2008 ), and subgrid turbulence is parameterized using the Smagorinsky scheme. The prognostic thermodynamic variable, liquid–ice static energy ( s li = C p T + gz − L c q liq − L s q ice ), is conserved for advection

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Richard H. Johnson

.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<1917:AARMMI>2.0.CO;2 . Wu , Z. , 2003 : A shallow CISK, deep equilibrium mechanism for the interaction between large-scale convection and large-scale circulations in the tropics . J. Atmos. Sci. , 60 , 377 – 392 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060<0377:ASCDEM>2.0.CO;2 . Xu , K.-M. , and D. A. Randall , 1995 : Impact of interactive radiative transfer on the macroscopic behavior of cumulus ensembles. Part II: Mechanisms for cloud-radiation interactions . J. Atmos. Sci. , 52 , 800 – 817 , doi

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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

. Mishchenko , 2004 : Calculation of radiative fluxes from the surface to top of atmosphere based on ISCCP and other global data sets: Refinements of the radiative transfer model and the input data . J. Geophys. Res. , 109 , D19105 , doi: 10.1029/2003JD004457 .

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